Clone Selection is a Promising Way to Improve the Grape Varieties
Authors: Ali A. Zarmaev
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The successes of clonal selection, achieved in viticulture in different countries of the world, indicate the great possibilities of using the vegetative variability of grape varieties. Most of the clones of grapes regionalized varieties are 1.5-2 times higher than the original samples in plantation productivity, which is the derivative of the crop mass and its quality. Due to clonal selection, the yield of vineyards in general by countries or regions has been increased by 2-5 times (Germany, Italy, France, California, etc.). Although the foundations of clonal breeding were laid down in ancient times, the attitude towards it was equivocal for a long time. The centuries-old practice of agriculture proves the possibility of constant grape variety nature improving by creation the optimal conditions for growing and selecting the best plants for reproduction. Nevertheless, recognizing the heritability of "mutations", supporters of formally genetic science denied the possibility of inheritance of weakly expressed changes, caused by bud variations as well, by unequal conditions of feeding of grape bush, grapevine and grapevine’s buds.
Only in recent decades, doubts have been ceased on the effectiveness of clonal breeding, in improving the productivity of widespread varieties of grapes. The way to this point was long. In this article, based on the wide involvement of literature sources, the emergence, formation and development of clonal selection, in the whole world, in the nearest abroad countries, in Russia, is shown. The prominent role of the outstanding scientist-geneticist N.I. Vavilov, whose teaching was the foundation for the development of scientific bases for selection of grapes, including clonal, is emphasized.
The results of long-term research on clonal selection of grapes, which were conducted by scientists both in Russia and in the near and far abroad, are given. In particular, the role of scientists of the Institute of Grape and Wine "Magarach" in development of domestic clonal selection of grapes is shown. The analysis of modern methods of clonal selection of grapes for productivity is given. A general conclusion is drawn on the need to continue the work on improving methods of clonal selection.