The article is devoted to literary propaganda among the Don Cossacks during the Crimean War.The author found several patriotic poems written by Don Cossacks during the reign of Nicholas I in the collection of the Don general, public figure and writer I.S. Ulyanov (State archive of the Rostov region). One of them, “The Eagle and Two Dogs” by F. Bykov, was a reaction to the entry of Great Britain and France into the Crimean War and was accompanied by an explanatory letter (in the article both of these documents are given in full). After analyzing these texts, as well as other poems, the author came to the conclusion that before the Crimean War on Don there existed patriotic literature, but it was distributed in manuscripts. The appointment of a patriotic M.Kh. Senyutkin to the post of editor of the Don Oblast Gazette and the beginning of the Crimean War led to the fact that patriotic artistic texts began to be actively printed. However, the authors of most of these texts were amateur writers, and because of the low quality of their poems and short stories, the propaganda of the “Don military statements was ineffective.
The article analyzes the formation of “the image of the enemy” in the Russian society in 1914–1916 on the basis of periodical and non-periodical publications. The author focuses on the relationship of information policy and its part in the military-political events in the world. It displays the impact of media on mass consciousness. It is also noted that the formation of the image of the enemy was productive in the army and among the population, but only during the early years of the war.
In addition to newspapers and illustrated periodicals (“Lyetopis’ voyny”, “Velikaya voyna v obrazakh i kartinkhakh”, “Ogonyok”, “Iskry”, “Neva”), brochures and books, published for “propagandizing” the reader during the Great War were also used as materials for the article.
The article analyzes some propaganda models, in particular, the Herman-Chomsky model, the Ellul model and the Hall model and their practical application as theoretical foundations for the analysis of British and German propaganda during World War I.The article shows that knowing the target audience is one of the most important principles of propaganda and it guarantees its effective work on shaping the picture of the world.At the same time, the specificity of the dominant subjective and group picture of the world determines both the research methodology and the applicable propaganda model. Supposedly the object of propaganda functions in three realities: empirical (defined in terms of the correspondence of the physical world and our senses); imaginary (corresponding to the virtual space of culture) and spectator reality (the intersection of the first two). The article considers propaganda to be a consistent, long-term way of creating or shaping events, with the aim of influencing the attitude of the masses to an idea. Itisprovedthattheeffectonthegroupismoreeffectivethanthe same effectontheindividual. The article researches the artificiality and intensity of propaganda campaigns with an obvious predominance of the emotional component, using factoids, i.e. facts that do not exist before their appearance, objectification in the media space. The author shows that both the German and British propaganda of World War I can be characterized to a greater extent as Propaganda 1.0, with its conceptualization.
The article deals with the organization of the military propaganda in the Baltic fleet during the Soviet-Finnish war 1939–1940. The author analyzed the propaganda spread in the Navy along with the objective difficulties related to the clarification of the goals and objectives of the war with Finland.
The author of the article used materials from the funds of the Russian State Archive of the Navy (RSA Navy), the city of St. Petersburg. Publications and rare editions of the political department of the Red Banner Baltic Fleet were used.
In this work, traditional and general scientific methods were used with the historical-situational method in respect to the Red Banner Baltic Fleet and its political management.
In conclusion, the author notes the reasons for the effectiveness of military propaganda among officers and sailors of the Baltic fleet. At the same time little-known questions of the Soviet – Finnish war of 1939–1940 are investigated.
The article considers the formation and combat use of Russian collaborationist units in the German army during the Second World War on the basis of a significant number of historiography sources.
The author pays attention to the use of collaborationist units in both front-line combat operations and as reconnaissance and sabotage units.
In conclusion the author notes that the Russian units that were on the side of the Third Reich during World War II performed a variety of functions: they were engaged in anti-partisan activities, in front-line combat operations, and also in reconnaissance and sabotage work behind the front line. Most of these units were distinguished by their reliability and existed until the fall of Germany.
The development of a solution to the question of Subcarpathian Ruthenia in 1944–1945 which ultimately led to the withdrawal of this territory from the Soviet Union (initially called the Transcarpathian Ukraine), had a certain significance in the territory of Slovakia too. In the broader meaning, it had affected the situation around the so-called Ukrainian question in Slovakia. It emerged through the so-called Movement for annexation of northeastern Slovakia to Transcarpathian Ukraine (Soviet Ukraine) and the establishment of the Ukrainian National Council of Prjaševščina (at the turn of 1944–1945 or at the beginning of 1945), evidently being carried out with the support of the Communist authorities in Transcarpathia, the Red Army headquarters and Soviet State Security Departments. The events in Transcarpathia have obviously influenced developments in northeastern Slovakia and had a major impact on the political activation of some local representatives of the Ukrainian population (as it was in the case in the Marmaros-Sighet region of Romania) who, at the time of the liberation of Eastern Slovakia, had not any clear idea of the further orientation. At the beginning of their activities, they attempted to imitate the variant of the Transcarpathian sovietisation and were supported by Soviet military and security structures. Clearly, this was a local initiative developed and coordinated by Uzhhorod which the Soviet leadership in Moscow had tolerated for some time (as a means of pressure on the Czechoslovak government and president Beneš to give up Subcarpathian Rutheniato the Soviet Union as soon as possible) and then halted regarding the willingness of Czechoslovak government officials not to complicate relations with Kremlin and carry out the handover of Subcarpathian Ruthenia to the USSR in 1945.
The article deals with sound broadcasting equipment that is at the disposal of various countries of the world. Attention is paid to lightweight, portable, vehicle and helicopter sound stations.
Open Internet sources as well as specialized literature were used as materials. In terms of methodology, comparative and typological methods were used in the article, which made it possible to compare such weapons of propaganda as sound stations from the standpoint of typology.
In conclusion, the author notes that there is an almost full range of sound equipment in the arsenal of the Armed Forces today, and it allows broadcasting at various distances from several hundred meters (portable complexes) up to 5 km (helicopter complexes). Broadcasting on an even greater territory is carried out with the help of special sound broadcasting stations, which, due to their size, cannot be placed on military equipment or transported by personnel.
The article deals with the organization of revolutionary and war propaganda in the Navy in the first months of Soviet power. It examines the state propaganda of the fleets together with the objective difficulties associated with the abolition of the system of control of naval forces in the Russian Empire.
In conclusion, the author notes reasons for which the Bolsheviks had to support lawlessness among the sailors of the fleet. At the same time he explores the beginning of public policy on the creation of the worker-peasant red fleet.
The paper uses the example of the city of Sochi to explore the forms of agitation and morale building activities practiced in extermination battalions during the Great Patriotic War.
Materials that helped accomplish the paper include archival records of primary party organizations in the Sochi extermination battalions, stored by the Center for Documentation of the Contemporary History of the Krasnodar Krai (Krasnodar, Russian Federation).
Research problems were addressed using both general scientific methods (analysis and synthesis, concretization, generalization) and traditional methods of historical analysis. The historical chronological approach allowed an insight into issues that existed in extermination battalions and was instrumental in reviewing the forms and methods of agitation and morale building activities carried out among the personnel.
The extermination battalions were created early in the Great Patriotic War, and first inspections revealed weak discipline and numerous violations in them. To correct this, the party bodies were assigned the task of organizing morale building activities and agitation campaigns among the personnel.
Agitation efforts in the extermination battalions were the responsibility of specialists appointed by primary party organizations of the units. These specialists utilized a wide range of activities, including rallies, lectures, production of wall newspapers and combat leaflets, roll-outs of patriotic and political campaigns and other. Importantly, these had a strong focus on reading and understanding the “Brief course of the history of the AUCP(B)” (Kratkiy kurs istorii VKP(b)), which contributed to the ideological indoctrination of Communists, Komsomols and non-Party personnel in line with Marxism-Leninism pillars.
The article researches the problem of the impact of propaganda on the civilian population of the occupied territories of the USSR during the recruitment activities for the Third Reich. Despite the fact that the local population played an insignificant and unenviable role in Germany’s vision of war, the information impact was of particular importance: starting from abduction and deportation of large contingents of workers up to the documented justification of humanity and civilizedness of these activities.
The propaganda system was focused on the “Eastern workers” and was distinguished by a good organization, involved a wide range of methods and techniques with a variety of information channels. Nevertheless, it cannot be attributed to the motivation factors for leaving for work in Germany, based only on the citizens’ idea of the unacceptability of cooperation with the enemy. But the very experience of applying the German propaganda in this direction, the variety of reactions to it from both sides shows the problems of deportation and further employment of Soviet citizens in the Third Reich.
The article reviews mediation processes that accompanied the preparation of the first trials of war criminals in the USSR in 1943. During the liberation of the country's territories occupied by the Nazi invaders, the truth about the atrocities committed against peaceful Soviet citizens was revealed. The crimes of the enemy and his accomplices were covered in the Soviet press, including through photo-printing of newspapers. In this article, we analyzed the content and dynamics of the photographic presentation of this topic in the central and regional printed periodicals during 1943, and also evaluated the possible effects of its impact on the audience. This aspect is of interest in the context of the topic of information preparation of the first trial of the accomplices of the enemy, which took place in Krasnodar in July 1943, as well as the next war crimes tribunal that was held in Kharkov in December 1943.
The article analyzes the historical source – “the Soldier’s greetings” lubok print. The attention is paid to the internal and external criticism of the source.
The material is a two-sided lubok picture “Soldier’s greetings”, printed in St. Petersburg, compiled by G. Bayturov. Lithograph of T. Kibbel. Currently, thislubokisararity. It was found in an antique shop in Chisinau (Republic of Moldova) in 2018.
In conclusion, the author notes that the presented lubok picture is attributed to the period of the Russo-Japanese War. This picture was distinguished by simplicity and plain text, since the main readers of lubok prints were servicemen and their family members, as well as the civil population. The main propaganda messages were: the Soldier’s service is difficult, but honorable; the future prosperity of the country depends on the soldier; in faithful service there are no big difficulties, the soldier just needs to follow the oath, and also about the unity of the Tzar with the people.