The article deals with advocacy of foreign agents in the North-Western Caucasus during the Caucasian war (1801–1864). Certain attention is paid to the external political reasons of emissaries’ participation in the Caucasian War.
The documents of regional archives, namely from the State Archives of the Krasnodar region, as well as modern scientific literature served as materials for this article. A part of the archival sources is introduced for the first time.
The conclusion states that emissaries carried out diverse advocacy activities against the Russian Empire in the North-West Caucasus. Their work manifested in the spread of proclamations, instigating the Highlanders to fight against Russia, spread of false information and instructors’ activities. The emissaries also took part in combat.
The article makes use of the materials of the Soviet periodical press to give an insight into the annexation of Bessarabia and Bukovina to the Soviet Union. It particularly focuses on the operations which involved airborne troops of the Red Army and the rhetoric adopted by the Soviet press.
The materials used include the issues of the Krasnoye Znamya (The Red Banner) newspaper published between July 2 and 10, 1940. The article also resorts to scientific works on the subject discussed, which helped reconstruct the overall picture of the events at the time.
At the end, the author concludes that the materials of the Soviet periodical press, describing the integration of Bessarabia and Bukovina into the Soviet Union, are an important source which allows us, in retrospect, to have a closer look at these events. The periodical press enables us to analyze fields of action the Soviet propaganda acted in, as well as the propaganda rhetoric in the pre-war period. In the annexation period, the Krasnoye Znamya newspaper covers the following key topics in its propaganda articles: 1. The invincibility of the Red Army, 2. The main mission of the Red Army is the Liberator army, 3. Blackening the previous history of the annexed territories and portraying a magnificent vision of the future.
The article is devoted to the organization of the German occupation authorities and their collaborators from among the local collaborators of large-scale psychological war against the population of Kursk region in 1941–1943. As the information base used in documents that are stored in the archives of the Russian Federal Security Service of the Office of the Kursk region and Belgorod region. Particular attention is given to the use of the German invaders mass of publications that began to emerge in the regional and in many regional centers of the Kursk region. The German command after the defeat near Moscow was forced to make certain adjustments to the policy of the occupation authorities for the development of civil and military collaboration in the population occupied Soviet territory. One such area was the intensification of mass propaganda of the population of the occupied territories, as well as Soviet prisoners of war. Considered filling newspapers with information materials, ways of presenting it. Identified individual stylistic features of the pro-Nazi newspapers published in Kursk frontline during the German occupation. It presents information on the individual editor in chief of the collaborationist mass of publications that appeared in the Kursk region in the occupation period.
The article examines the processes of mediatization that accompanied the trials of war criminals in the USSR. As an example, a first public trial of accomplices of the Nazi invaders, held in July 1943 in the city of Krasnodar. Content analytical research publications in the regional newspaper "Bolshevik", covering the problems of enemy atrocities in the temporarily occupied territories of the Soviet Union, allowed to reveal the role of the Soviet print media in the preparation process of Krasnodar. This role was to discharge hatred of the enemy on an emotional level; objective basis for this and acted statistics detailing the atrocities of the Nazis in the liberated from the occupation of the territories of the country. Dynamics of publications on this topic are also stimulated by the need to produce the desired effect in the international community, to respond to the provocation "information events" by the Nazis.
Regarding the process of presentation of Krasnodar in the Soviet press it concluded that it was distinguished by the magnitude, integrity and compliance with the ideological standards. This feed topics of war crimes in the territory of the USSR and the coming retribution for them possible to effectively tackle current domestic and foreign policy objectives.
Some of the major archetypes and their application in various mass communications (in propaganda, advertising, journalism, etc.) are analyzed in the article. At the beginning the notion “archetype” is defined as matrix in our subconscious that makes us to act a certain way from the standpoint of our greatness.
Classification of archetypes is proposed, namely physical (light/darkness; dry/wet); spatial (right/left; up/down; center/periphery; symmetric/asymmetric; inside/outside); biological (man/woman; strong/weak; young/old; beautiful/ugly; big/small; healthy/sick); psychological (honest/villain); social (we/others; freedom/slavery; order/chaos; rich/poor; known/unknown; nature/machine; work/pleasure); cultural (paradise/hell; clean/dirty etc.).
The main characteristics of the different archetypes are unconsciousness, mythologicalness and biological, and cultural conditioning. Archetype light/darkness and archetype left/right are analyzed in details on the basis of many examples of various communications and propaganda.
The reason for their efficiency and very high spread is not so much in unscrupulous communicators – writers, journalists, propagandists, clergy, politicians, etc., but in the natural predisposition of each of us to this type of communication. Archetypes give us a simple answer to all questions, don’t bother us with mental effforts and fit perfectly to the dark side of our subconscious thinking.
The review analyzes the book by Yuriy N. Logvinenko, entitled German Secret Services and Repressive Apparatus between the 7th and 20th Centuries: A Literary and Historical Study through the Lens of Philately, published in 2014. The book by Logvinenko is one of the few works which look at the German propaganda and the way it is represented in postage stamps. The reviewer considers this literary and historical study as a scientific and journalistic work which includes all basic elements of scientific research, is written in simple and clear language and richly illustrated. These factors, taken together, are sure to generate widespread interest to the book. The author primarily focuses on the secret services and repressive agencies which operated in Nazi Germany, as well as describes the history of German espionage and investigation operations in the Middle Ages and modern times, and the country's security services in the 5 decades between its division and reunification. The reviewer emphasizes the importance of the personalistic perspective adopted in the book, its respect to the German history, vivid historical and philatelic sketches on a variety of subjects, and patriotic and educational value of the work. The book also outlines possibilities of using the materials for learning purposes.
The article covers the problem of glorification of underage volunteers in the Russian army during the years of World War l. The article is focused on the beginnings of the voluntary movement, the first appearances of volunteers at the front and the glorification of the children, who heroically performed at the fronts in the periodical press.
The sources for the work are the articles in Russian circular periodicals (newspapers and magazines) and the postcards, issued before the Revolution, illustrating the problem of glorification of young volunteers in the Russian army during World War l. The author achieved the research goals, applying general scientific methods (analysis and synthesis, particularization, generalization) and the conventional methods of historical analysis. It enables the author to study the causes, motivating the Russian youth to flee to the front as volunteers.
In conclusion the authors resume that the unexpectedly appeared movement of underage volunteers became a fait accompli despite the counteractions of civic and military authorities. Having failed to prevent and stop it with the help of prohibitive practices, the Russian government presented young volunteers activities as the samples of patriotic service in mass media
The paper analyzes caricature as a propaganda instrument utilized during World War I. The source used includes caricatures published in Ogoniok, a Russian magazine, in 1914–1916.
The systematization principle, applied in the study into the caricatures, helped to identify main topics that were a subject for debate in the periodical press. Importantly, the researcher also remains as neutral in their interpretation and assessment of the actual material in the study as possible.
At the end, the author concludes that the Ogoniok magazine focused its caricatures on the topic of Germany during World War I, while allies of Germany – Austria-Hungary and Turkey – were paid much less attention. The propaganda usually portrayed German allies in as dependent countries which were subordinate to Germany. In addition to the Entente's enemies, the caricature genre highlighted the military topic and the subject of the issued society faced in the rear.
The article considers the propaganda in the press, radio, cinema and scenic art during the German occupation of 1941–1943 based on the examples of five regions that were a part of the Ukraine military zone (Chernigov, Sumy, Kharkov, Voroshilovgrad and Donetsk regions), controlled by the military authorities.
The works of the contemporary Ukrainian historians, as well as the archival documents of the supreme authorities and administration of Ukraine central state archive (KMF-8 foundation, which holds the documents photocopies of the "South" Army), state archives of the Sumy and Kharkov regions and the periodical press materials of the occupation time were used in the research.
It is noted that the ideological principles of the Nazi and their confidence in the success of the "blitzkrieg" did not allow the invaders to follow the pragmatic political course, offered by A. Rosenberg. Certain propaganda efforts were successful largely due to the involvement of the representatives of the local intelligentsia.
This article considers tactical and technical characteristics of a Russian army’s propaganda weapon – the medium powered sound broadcasting station ZS-82 (“The Decorator”) on a base of open sources.
The sources used for the compilation of this article were various open source data, such as official news websites, forums, educational and scientific literature.
Despite some thematic diversity, this topic is presented quite limitedly in the open access. We used general scientific methods, analysis and synthesis methods, concretization and generalization in solving research problems. The use of these techniques allowed us to create a complete picture of combat use of this technology in local conflicts at the end of XX – beginning of XXI centuries.
In conclusion, it is indicated that the Russian army arsenal possesses an effective means of advocacy – the medium powered ZS-82 “The Decorator”. Despite its limited combat use, practice showed that this equipment can be used for conducting negotiations (agitation), as well for performing disinformation activities.
The paper considers first propaganda efforts by the German intelligence services to carry out activities as part of the General Vlasov Campaign in the occupied territories and at the front. It cites a German document from the archives of the German Ministry of Foreign Affairs – "Development and Status of War Propaganda in the East since Autumn 1942 (Vlasov Campaign)". The English version of the document is published for the first time. The paper specifically looks at the international consequences that followed from this campaign.