A smart home or building is a home or building, usually a new one that is equipped with special structured wiring to enable occupants to remotely control or program an array of automated home electronic devices by entering a single command. Conventional security systems keep homeowners, and their property, safe from intruders. A smart home security system, however, offers many more benefits. Home automation technology notifies homeowners of any problems, so that they can investigate. In this paper, we discuss smart home and security, we also review the tool related to smart home security.
All models of ubiquitous computing share a vision of small, inexpensive, robust networked processing devices, distributed at all scales throughout everyday life and generally turned to distinctly common-place ends. This paper presents a solution for Parctab Ubiquitous Computing experiment previously been studied.
Smart Home technology started for more than a decade to introduce the concept of networking devices and equipment in the house. According to the Smart Homes Association the best definition of smart home technology is: the integration of technology and services through home networking for a better quality of living. Many tools that are used in computer systems can also be integrated in Smart Home Systems. In this paper, we present the Technologies and tools that can be integrated or applied in Smart Home systems.
Typically in a peer-to-peer network, nodes are required to route packets for each other. This entails to a problem of “free-loaders,” nodes that use the network but refuse to route other nodes’ packets. In this paper we presented designing incentives to discourage free-loading.
This paper presents a method to use View based approach in Bangla Optical Character Recognition (OCR) system providing reduced data set to the ANN classification engine rather than the traditional OCR methods. It describes how Bangla characters are processed, trained and then recognized with the use of a Backpropagation Artificial neural network. This is the first published account of using a segmentation-free optical character recognition system for Bangla using a view based approach. The methodology presented here assumes that the OCR pre-processor has presented the input images to the classification engine described here. The size and the font face used to render the characters are also significant in both training and classification. The images are first converted into greyscale and then to binary images; these images are then scaled to a fit a pre-determined area with a fixed but significant number of pixels. The feature vectors are then formed extracting the characteristics points, which in this case is simply a series of 0s and 1s of fixed length. Finally, a Artificial neural network is chosen for the training and classification process. Although the steps are simple, and the simplest network is chosen for the training and recognition process.
Self configuring VLSI technology architectures offer a new environment for creating novel security functions. Two such functions for physical security architectures are proposed to be generated autonomously as unknown/secret internal functions. A cell-based FPGA technology architecture is deployed for generating two classes of self-constructed one-way physical secret functions, one representing a hash function and the other a ciphering function. The Hash function is a non-invertible mapping, where the cipher function should be invertible. The two sample architectures of the functions are inspired from the programmable cell structure of the selected FPGA technology. As the functions are internally created, their mapping structures can be kept completely secret and even unknown to anybody. Such units could be efficiently deployed for a novel physical security even when nothing is known about their exact architecture and mapping functions. Several new attractive application scenarios are demonstrated including a type of zero-knowledge proof of identity and clone-resistant physical units as well as secured dependency functions. It is also shown that such security mechanisms can be kept operational for some useful applications even if the secret-unknown functions are allowed to evolve and develop additional time-dependent and individual properties. Such security functions became recently possible after self-configuring VLSI architectures are available as a part of real microelectronic systems.
Robot Security is becoming more and more a serious issue for many modern applications. Robot Security matters are still not intensively addressed in the published literature. The goal of this paper is to explore possible identification and security mechanisms which fit to robot technologies and their operating environment. To secure transactions between robots deployed in open service, robots need first to be securely identified “as born persons” with unique provable identities. Robots rolling from a production line are assumed to be equal objects; therefore the first necessary action is to personalize robots and give them unclonable identities. A sort of “Electronic mutation” technology was specified and proposed to create a non-reversible and non-repeatable robot identity, which is at the same time securely provable . The identity exhibits properties similar to those of human DNA. The resulting clone-resistant or (unclonable) identity is adapted and proposed to be embedded in a robot environment. The goal is also to diffuse the identity traces possibly into all robot activities similarly as the human DNA do throughout the whole body of a biological creature. The identity proposed is made traceable through cryptographic signatures linked to relevant robot mechanical and electronic activities as a step towards “mechatronic security”. The work is also aiming to stimulate discussions on robot security issues or in general the question of “mechatronic security”.
This paper presents a discussion concerning EEG signals compression using the basis pursuit (BP) approach applied for several overcomplete wavelet dictionaries. The compression is based on an “optimal” superposition of dictionary elements, by minimizing the l1 norm of the error. The best results have been obtained with the Daubechies10 dictionary.
In this application of artificial intelligence to a real-world problem, the constrained scheduling of employee resourcing for a mall type shop is solved by means of a genetic algorithm. Chromosomes encode a one-week schedule and a constraint matrix handles all requirements for the population. The genetic operators are purposely designed to preserve all constraints and the objective function assures an imposed coverage, this is for people on both sections of the mall. The results demonstrate that the genetic algorithm approach can provide acceptable solutions to this type of employee scheduling problem with constrains.
The exposure of integrated electronic components and systems to ionizing radiation may lead to minor deterioration in performance or catastrophic system failure, depending on the level of radiation (as a function of altitude). Mitigation of the radiation-induced hazards is of a major concern for space applications, since electronic components are expected to function without failure for an extended period of time, under extreme operating conditions. The work presented in this paper examines the effect of radiation on electronic components through analytical modeling of parameters, some of which are design-dependent and others are process-dependent. Examinations of the inter-dependency of these parameters would aid identifying possible solutions to the radiation tolerance problem.
Foveation principles suggested by natural vision systems enable the construction of a proper mask that may modulate the coefficients given by the Discrete Wavelet Transform of an ECG record. The mask is spatially selective and provides maximum accuracy around specific regions of interest. Subsequent denoising and coefficient quantization are further combined with efficient coding techniques such as SPIHT in order to provide high compression ratios at low reconstruction errors. Experimental results reported on a number of MIT-BIH records show improved performances over existing solutions.
Broad spectrum of optical wireless communication is available, which can fulfill the requirements of high speed wireless communication. This is the basic advantage of optical wireless communication over conventional wireless communication technologies. The other important thing is the day by day decreasing size of wireless sensors with the advent of advancement in device processing technologies like micro- and nano-electromechanical systems. This decrease in dimensions of sensors causes serious problem for battery storage capacity. We address this issue and propose a model of communication and recharging of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) nodes simultaneously using passive optical communication. We propose both Line-of-Sight and Quasi-diffuse communication for this purpose. There are some situations where direct LOS is better option while at non-line-of-sight, the energy of a multi-spot Quasi-diffuse beam can be utilized. In our model we have used modified Corner Cube Retroreflector (CCR) and a newly proposed device Thinfilm Corner Cube Retroreflector (TCCR) for passive communication and recharging sensor nodes. These devices have large angle of diversity due to which they can provide communication facility to large areas. Our analysis shows that the proposed model could show better performance and significant increase in network life time.
The purpose of this research is for the establishment of Ubiquitous learning (U-learning) based synchronous, asynchronous and hybrid mode. This paper proposed the implementation of learning between student and teacher of service provider in u-space, which is not limited to traditional e-learning system. Student-focused testing services include: excellent test paper creation/deletion/registration; 7 phase framework; database development; and PDA page design. This system allows students to be supported with an electronic input, authentication, distribution, monitor, gathering, grading and inquiring phase and supports learning session dependent multicasting. The devices used include PDAs, mobile phones, portable computers and tablet PDAs. This system is to become a more capable student learning environment so that student can get student’s learning done more efficiently. The development of a ubiquitous learning environment combines the advantages of an adaptive learning environment with the benefits of ubiquitous computing and the flexibility of mobile devices.
We propose a chapter mark addition method for surgery video application that adopts cubic higher-order local auto-correlation (CHLAC) features. In our method, normal motions, which frequently occur in a scene, are statistically learnt by using CHLAC in combination with the subspace method. An anomalous motion exists far from the subspace of the frequently-observed motions and such motion is detected based on the deviation from the subspace, and a chapter mark is placed just before the position of the detected anomalous motion. We conducted preliminary experiments using surgery video data to confirm effectiveness of the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method can detect the motions not frequently-observed in a surgery operation and the chapters are effectively constructed.
The field of WLAN has grown significantly in the last three decades. An interesting usage of computer networks is in offices and educational institutes were increased to exchange streams of multimedia data. These privately-owned networks are known as Local Area Networks (LANs) which come under the category of small scale networks but researchers introduced the possible usage of wireless technologies for interconnection. This has resulted in the emergence of wireless LANs (WLANs). In the world of information system, performance is a very important subject. It consists of the work which the computer WLAN system is supposed to do, and how do we judge whether is being done well. To achieve performance in the field of WLAN, certain features must be available and operational in the design of the WLANs. Performance must also be considered when configuring and implementing the WLAN systems. The modeler of such WLAN systems must follow a systematic approach in evaluation, measurements, and analytical or simulation modeling of such WLAN system. This paper presents a comparison and an evaluation of transmitting multimedia streams over three different WLANs scenarios by using OPNET simulator.
Middleware facilitates the development of distributed systems by accommodating heterogeneity, hiding distribution details and providing a set of common and domain specific services. It plays a central and essential role for developing distributed systems. However, middleware is considered a mean rather than core elements of development process in the existing distributed systems software process. This paper explains the concept of middleware by categorizes middleware and analysis the problems of current middleware architectures. It also extracts three essential non-functional requirements of middleware and proposes a middleware-based distributed systems software process. The proposed software process consists in five phases: requirements analysis, design, validation, development and testing. The characteristics of middleware are considered in the entire software process. Component-Based Software Engineering, Separation of Concerns, Model-Driven Architecture, formal methods and Aspect Oriented Programming are five active research areas that have been around for several years now. In this paper, we present how these five paradigms can be put together in the context of a new software development method and we show how they can complement each other at different stages in the development life-cycle of middleware-mediated applications.
In most of the current applications security is usually provided individually. This means that various applications use their own security mechanisms and services, applied only to their own resources and functions. Furthermore, procedures to configure security parameters are usually inconvenient and complicated for non-technical users. As an alternative to this approach, we have designed and implemented Secure Workstation, which represents an integrated security environment and protects local IT resources, messages and operations across multiple applications. It comprises five components, i.e. four most commonly used PC applications: Secure Station Manager (equivalent to Windows Explorer), Secure E-Mail Client, Secure Documents System, and Secure Browser. These four components for their security extensions use functions and credentials of the fifth component, Generic Security Provider . With this approach, we provide standard security services (authentication, confidentiality, and integrity and access control) and also additional, extended security services, such as transparent handling of certificates, use of smart cards, strong authentication protocol, SAML based single-singe-on, secure sessions, and other security functions, to all PC applications with the same set of security modules and parameters.
Correlation trackers are in use for the past four decades. Edge based correlation tracking algorithms have proved their strength for long term tracking, but these algorithms suffer from two major problems: clutter and slow occlusion. Thus, there is a requirement to improve the confidence measure regarding target and non-target object. In order to solve these problems, we present an “Edge Enhanced Fragment Based Normalized Correlation (EEFNC)” algorithm, in which we: (1) divide the target template into nine non-overlapping fragments after edge-enhancement, (2) correlate each fragment with the corresponding fragment of the template-size section in the search region, and (3) achieve the final similarity measure by averaging the correlation values obtained for every fragment. A fragment level template updating method is also proposed to make the template adaptive to the variation in the shape and appearance of the object in motion. We provide the experimental results which show that the proposed technique outperforms the recent Edge-Enhanced Normalized Correlation (EENC) tracking algorithm in occlusion and clutter.
Potentially large number of cryptography solutions to attain security is widely known and recognized. Looking for a stronger scheme is the aim of most researchers to hide valuable information from each other. In this information age, many encryption algorithm exist to help keep information secure and these algorithms vary in complexity and ability to resist cracking. In this paper we present a hybrid crypto scheme that combines the acclaimed effective in symmetric type of algorithm, AES and the Elliptic Curve Cryptography in Asymmetric algorithm.
Due to the characteristics of wireless mobile networks (e.g., node mobility, request fluctuation, poor quality of service), operators as well as service and content providers must cooperate to satisfy their customers. One of the solutions is the dynamic reconfiguration of service platforms, which is a real-time operation made on an initial configuration to improve the QoS parameters of the platform. Reconfiguration can be done by software means, and it can be material or logical, meaning that it may affect the physical or software components of the platform, the physical links, or also the transmitted information, without deteriorating the SLAs contracts signed between customers and operators. Several works have been already published in this direction but they fail in presenting a global view and a generic solution for the problem. This work is articulated in the form of a synthesis of the various solutions of reconfiguration which take place with coherence on the various levels of intervention. To this purpose, a model of a platform has been first developed; traffic and mobility models have been also injected to predict the movement and the demand pattern of the users. Moreover, several scenarios of reconfiguration were proposed for the change or the migration of software components, for the management network, the information routing, and the adaptation of the data. In a first part, we address the reconfiguration problem as a mono-objective optimization problem subjected to several constraints. We propose a mathematical model to deal with this situation. However, we found that finding rigorous solutions for this problem may have a huge computational cost. Hence, we also propose an alternative method introducing flow deviation and heuristics in the genetic algorithm. In the second part of our work, we deal with the behavioural aspect of the problem. It consists in considering the different metrics simultaneously and to seek a whole solution configuration representing various interesting compromises between the resources networks and the classes of services and users.
Recent technological advances in sensors, low-power microelectronics and miniaturization, and wireless networking enabled the design and proliferation of wireless sensor networks capable of autonomously monitoring and controlling environments. One of the most promising applications of sensor networks is for human health monitoring. A number of tiny wireless sensors, strategically placed on the human body, create a wireless body area network (WBAN) that can monitor various vital signs, providing real-time feedback to the user and medical personnel. The wireless body area networks promise to revolutionize health monitoring. Since the sensors collect personal medical data, security and privacy are important components in this kind of networks (WBAN). It is a challenge to implement traditional security infrastructures in these types of lightweight networks, since they are by design limited in both computational and communication resources. A key enabling technology for secure communications in WBANs has emerged to be biometrics.
In this paper, we present an approach which exploits physiological signals (electrocardiogram (ECG)) to address security issues in WBAN: a Secure and Efficient Key Exchange for wireless Body Area Network (SEKEBAN). SEKEBAN manages the generation and distribution of symmetric cryptographic keys to constituent sensors in a WBAN and protect the privacy.
This article is devoted to discussion of development of the electronic business. The features of the electronic business are described. Some advantages of the electronic business in enterprises are shown. The modern business is characterized by constant growing of global competition and increasing level requirements of customers. The role of the electronic business in increasing of competitiveness is considered. For preparing and organization successful in competitive fight electronic business recommendations are suggested. This paper gives an overview of current on – line payment systems of UzNet in Uzbekistan, determines which are they and how do they work. Also these systems compared and analyzed from functionality, security and cost point of view. Also the question of necessity of using the digital signature in e-Procurement systems is considered in this paper. Such technology will allow to faultless identification of the person who have signed document, and an invariance of the signed document.
A good watermarking technique embeds information into a carrier image with virtually imperceptible modification of the image. The present paper found a novel fact that by inserting the watermark using Least Significant Bit (LSB), the grey value of the image pixel either remains same or increases or decreases to one. The present paper is focused on this issue and found that such ambiguity of grey level values by LSB method comes between successive even and odd grey level values only. The proposed method inserts hidden message on m x m windows, based on their grey level values and coordinate positions. The present approach allows high robustness, embedding capacity and enhanced security. A detailed algorithm is furnished along with the results of its application on some sample images.
In this paper, we consider the design of stable linear switched systems for polytopic uncertainties via their closed loop linear quadratic state feedback regulator. The closed loop switched systems can stabilize unstable open loop systems or stable open loop systems but in which there is no solution for a common Lyapunov matrix. For continuous time switched linear systems, we show that if there exists solution in an associated Riccati equation for the closed loop systems sharing one common Lyapunov matrix, the switched linear systems are stable. For the discrete time switched systems, we derive an LMI to calculate a common Lyapunov matrix and solution for the stable closed loop feedback systems. These closed loop linear quadratic state feedback regulators guarantee the global asymptotical stability for any switched linear systems with any switching signal sequence.
In given article questions on directions of the theory and practice of computer modeling and the organization of computing experiment are considered at carrying out of pedagogical researches. Its condition for today is analyzed and the mathematical model of processes of testing is offered. In this article objects of creation methods and models of teaching material setting-up in depend on states of trainee in intellectual education systems are considered. The computer system of Uzbek Spellchecking depends on many scientific researches which were made for other agglutinative languages. Effective algorithms that can solve this problem using small amount of resources and without a waste of time are discussed in this paper. Also here the program’s graphic user interface and its full functionality have been described. In the third part of the paper the results of analysis of Russian Federation and Kyrgyz Republic educational standards in Information Technology, Computer Sciences, Informatics, Applied Mathematics and other are considered in this paper. Required changes are bringing out that must be made for development new educational standard corresponding Bologna Process. Important specifics of educational standards of European Countries and United States are showing. New educational standard on field “Informatics and Computer Engineering” are suggested for bachelor level of Kyrgyz Republic. In the suggested standards four blocks of previous standards are saved to provide continuity with standards former generation.