A ideia de desenvolvimento tem sido associada às discussões teóricas sobre se é o Estado ou o mercado que pode responder a problemas de desenvolvimento. Segundo esta abordagem, o objetivo desse trabalho é rever a evolução da ideia sobre o desenvolvimento na América Latina e sua discussão no regionalismo Latino-Americano. Portanto, realiza-se este trabalho partindo de uma revisão que começa com a abordagem estruturalista e a teoria da dependência dos anos 1950 e 1960. Em seguida, analisa-se as alterações acontecidas na região, nos anos 90, a partir da execução das políticas neoliberais. Finalmente, o interesse é dirigido a analisar as novas tendências de integração na região. Nesse sentido, apesar da heterogeneidade dos atuais processos de integração, o fim da convergência neoliberal permitiu novamente a proposta da ideia de desenvolvimento na região.
La idea de desarrollo ha estado ligada a las discusiones teóricas en torno a si es el Estado o el mercado los que pueden responder a los problemas del crecimiento. Bajo este enfoque, este trabajo tiene como objetivo revisar cómo ha evolucionado la idea de desarrollo en América Latina y su discusión en el regionalismo latinoamericano. Por lo tanto, se realiza un recuento que inicia con el enfoque estructuralista y la teoría de la dependencia de los años 1950 y 1960. Luego, se analizan los cambios de la región en los años 1990 a partir de la aplicación de las políticas neoliberales. Por último, se analizan las nuevas tendencias de integración en la región. En ese sentido, pese a la heterogeneidad de los procesos de integración actuales, el fin de la convergencia neoliberal permitió plantear nuevamente la idea de desarrollo en la región.
This essay reviews the process, and consequences of the declaration of Bolivia as a Plurinational State. It aims to determine if it responds to a model of plural or multicultural State. It develops a review of the concepts of Pluralism, as resulting from an individualistic tradition; and Multiculturalism, as resulting from a communal tradition. Based on the work carried out by various actors, as well as the review of some actions of the Bolivarian government, it is concluded that the 2009 Constitution installs a model of Plural State.
This paper examines a series of economic and political measures implemented by the United States in the context of the preparation and execution of the Global War on Terrorism, with the aim of demonstrating that Mesoamerica takes the place that in previous decades occupied Central America as a focus of interest and particular attention of the United States geopolitics and economy and that this regional reconfiguration is confined to a planetary space revolution that is an immediate consequence of the Global War on Terrorism.
The article analyze the neoliberal model in Costa Rica from the policies of dismantlement of the state. Next its approaches the Neuroliberalism like a determinant social and cultural who manifests itself legitimizing the hegemonic structure of the Neoliberalism. These two phenomena are discussed later to reflect the failure of the neoliberal speech from the fact of the unemployment national problem.
Since I was a child I danced. Well back then I could not say dance because it was sin, except when we danced inside the church to praise and worship God. That's what I learned since I was eight years old. I started my first steps in dance in choreographies that the teachers taught us in our little Sunday school. This is my story.
Paul Benavides-Vilchez writes this book in prose, and in it seems that he recalls the uncertainty that we have lived since the 80's. It could be said that it is about the same historical period, an era with its wounds and its fissures. Through these fissures are the words of Paul, are the memories of a castaway which may well be he or all of us, who read his book at this precise moment. Book review of Apuntes para un naúfrago [Notes for a Shipwrecked Sailor] by Paul Benavides-Vílches. Review by the poet and Costa Rican Culture National Award winner, Mia Gallegos-Domínguez
From the title of this novel, written by Rafael Cuevas Molina, everything incites the shortness, the lightness of the minimum and the diffuse, that which escapes from us throughout the fingers. This relationship exists mediated by the enormous weight that across the novel is recreated by the Guatemalan-Costa Rican author, from an exclusionary and aggressive society. A tiny fraction of the wind is a work that shows us the modern Guatemala. Its fictional universe shows us the highly delimited social relations into a divided and strictly stratified society on the basis of the social class of the subjects. Book review of the novel by Rafael Cuevas-Molina, Una mínima fracción del viento [A Tiny Fraction of the Wind] (EUNA Eds.m 2016).
The Costa Rican journal Repertorio Amer¬icano is analyzed to find in it the political proposal Spanish refugees proclaimed. Special emphasis is placed on those fig¬ures who geographically were living in Costa Rica. Likewise, the journal text is interpreted both from the perspective
was produced, and from the cultural field it belongs to. The research intends to of the historical conjuncture in which it open new ways to approach what has been so far the analysis and study of the Spanish republican exile in Central America.
The chronicle that Martí dedicated to Thomas Alva Edison lets us appreciate the originality of the man and the sci¬entist. This chronicle was published in El Partido Liberal on February 5th, 1890, and included in one of the volumes of Edición Crítica [Critical Edition]—still under investigation and checked against micro¬films. When analyzing the Edison’s pro¬file Martí outlined, what is striking is the relationship the great inventor established between his creations, nature and mystery, since the scientist also had mystical visions and fantasies; hence, there was a connec¬tion between God and science, as well as between poetry and sciences, especially mathematics. The present article analyses these relationships
In this text we analyze the book Quarto de despejo: diário de uma favelada (2015), published in the sixties by the then unknown Carolina Maria de Jesus. Written as a diary, Carolina portrays the inner vision of a new reality that would dismay the Brazilian population until the present day: la chabola [the shack]. In her pieces Carolina carried a series of stigmata that notoriously marked her writing since she was a woman, a black woman, a poor woman, and a half-literate woman. That is why his works divide opinions about its literary value. This article aims to analyze her first book, evoking autobiographical and memorial aspects in relation to his time and space.
This essay offers an interpretation of the Latin American political conjuncture of the last two or three years. On one hand, the conjuncture is characterized by what the analysts call the end of the progressive, nation¬al and popular cycle. On the other hand, the conjuncture is marked by the electoral rising of right-wing gov¬ernments and parties; they are driv¬ing a restoration of the neoliberal project in the region. We present a contextualization of this dou¬ble process and its main con¬flict dimensions, and we reflect from a position of identification and critical accompaniment with the national, popular, progressive, Latin American project. We also reflect on the needs of the social movements, political par¬ties and organic intellectuals of the Latin American left wings to assume, as a task, the dispute for the political and cultural hegemony vis-à-vis the project of reviving the neoliberalism.
Este ensayo ofrece una perspectiva de interpretación de la coyuntura política latinoamericana de los últimos dos a tres años caracterizada por un lado, por lo que algunos analistas llaman fin del ciclo progresista y nacional-popular; y por el otro, por el ascenso electoral de gobiernos y partidos de derecha, que impulsan una restauración del proyecto neoliberal en la región. Se presenta una contextualización de este doble proceso y de sus principales dimensiones de conflicto, y se reflexiona, desde una posición de identificación y acompañamiento crítico con el proyecto progresista y nacional-popular latinoamericano, sobre la necesidad de que los movimientos sociales, partidos políticos e intelectuales orgánicos de las izquierdas latinoamericanas asuman como tarea la disputa por la hegemonía política y cultural frente al proyecto de actualización del neoliberalismo.
This article aims to outline the factors that have influenced the strengthening of Sino-Latin American relations. It argues that Latin America’s political, commercial and financial interests towards China are explained in terms of the position consolidated by China as the world’s second largest economy. An analysis of Brazil as a relatively industrialized country and of Ecuador as a small nation serve as an empirical reference in explaining and understanding how the foreign policies of both countries have behaved with respect to China and allows us to question the priority areas of their relationship from a comparative perspective. The article concludes that while both countries have a strategic relationship with China, in Brazil’s case, foreign policy is strongly tied to China in the political, commercial and financial spheres, while Ecuador's financial dependence on China is the most important element in its foreign policy.
El presente artículo tiene como objetivo delinear los factores que inciden en el afianzamiento de las relaciones sino-latinoamericanas. Se sostiene que el interés político, comercial y financiero de América Latina respecto a China se explica en función del posicionamiento logrado por dicho país como segunda economía mundial. El análisis de los casos de Brasil como un país relativamente industrializado y Ecuador como un país pequeño sirve como un referente empírico para comprender y explicar cómo se ha comportado la política exterior de ambos países en torno a China y permiten indagar sobre los ejes prioritarios de su relación desde una perspectiva comparada. El artículo concluye que si bien ambos países tienen una relación estratégica con China, el caso de Brasil muestra matices de una política exterior fuertemente vinculada a China en las esferas políticas, comerciales y financieras, mientras que en el caso de Ecuador la dependencia financiera subyace como elemento de peso en la política exterior.
This text presents an analysis of the systematic terror of State put in practice in Guatemala against its population through kidnapping, disappearance, forced detention, and the processes the Archivo Histórico (Historical Archives) is leading in the country to exhume, identify and denounce these genocide facts.
Se presenta un análisis del sistemático terror de estado ejercido por Guatemala en su población, mediante secuestro, desaparición-detención forzada y los procesos que lleva adelante el Archivo Histórico de dicho país en la exhumación, identificación y denuncia de estos hechos genocidas
With the Global War against Terro¬rism, in 2002, the American govern¬ment changed its strategy of political, economic, and military intervention toward the rest of the world, and, par¬ticularly, towards Central America, modifying, in consequence, the spatial configuration of the region. In this es¬say, we analyze the main policies the American government implemented in the Central America region during the 1980s and 1990s. These policies genera¬te a preparation platform for this war in order to demonstrate 1) how the Global War against Terrorism responds to the capitalism’s need to contain the burs¬ting of ever more prolonged economic crises, through the total war and the constitution of a total enemy: the terro¬rism; and 2) how Mesoamerica is built as a response to the current American, geopolitical, and economic interests.
Gloria Anzaldua (1942-2004) Chica¬na-lesbian, and feminist writer. The auto¬biographical essay “La Prieta” was published in Esta puente, mi espalda. Voces de mu¬jeres tercermundista en los Estados Unidos [this is the Spanish version of This Bri¬dge Called My Back: Writings by Radical Women of Color, translated and adapted by Ana Castillo and Norma Alarcón], in 1988. This essay examines the lite-rature and thoughts of this Latin Ame¬rican, Mexican, Chicana, mestizo, and lesbian woman. She lived and analyzed several intersections that hang over fe¬minine humanities, and are experien¬ced by them.
Chicano feminism, Gloria Anzaldúa, “La Prieta”, essay, Latin American feminist thought, border-li-ne thought
This approach intends to problemati¬ze the sound dimension as one of the structuring elements of identities, both individual and collective ones, in a spe¬cific context; thus, it is possible to esta¬blish an epistemological bridge between hegemonic structures of colonialism and its intrinsic relation with the Latin American sound landscape. The aim is to make visible how the current colo¬nialist trends of thought have remained and transformed. Special importance is given to the sound as a unit of analysis that necessarily accompanies such struc¬tures of thought in each one of the di-mensions in which human being lives: political, cultural, artistic, technologi¬cal, recreational ones, among others.