Rice bran hydrolysates induce immunomodulatory effects by suppression of chemotaxis, and modulation of cytokine release and cell-mediated cytotoxicity
Authors: Suphanthip Phusrisom, Laddawan Senggunprai, Auemduan Prawan, Sarinya Kongpetch, Upa Kukongviriyapan, Supawan Thawornchinsombut, Ronnachai Changsri, Veerapol Kukongviriyapan
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Objective: To evaluate the immunomodulatory effects of rice bran hydrolysates on cultured immune cells and their underlying mechanism.
Methods: Rice bran hydrolysates were prepared from pigmented rice (Oryza sativa L.) by hydrothermolysis and protease digestion. Rice bran hydrolysates were assayed for phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Cell proliferation of Jurkat, THP-1 and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Chemotaxis was evaluated by transwell chamber methods. Immunoadherence of THP-1 was performed on cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Cytokine released from PBMC was measured by ELISA assay kits. Lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity was carried out on KKU-452 cells. Proteins associated with immunomodulation were analyzed by Western immunoblotting assay.
Results: Rice bran hydrolysates were rich in phenolic compounds, such as ferulic acid, catechin, quercetin, and quercetin glycosides. Rice bran hydrolysates suppressed phytohemagglutinin (PHA)- stimulated proliferation of PBMC and Jurkat cells, chemotaxis of Jurkat and THP-1 cells, and immunoadherence of THP-1 on HUVEC cultured cells. The cellular mechanism of rice bran hydrolysates involved the activation of AMPK as well as suppression of mTOR, NF-κB and VCAM-1. Rice bran hydrolysates potentiated PBMC on the PHA-stimulated release of IL-2, TNF-α, and IL-4, and enhanced PHA-induced non-MHC-restricted cytotoxicity on KKU-452 cancer cells.
Conclusions: The immunomodulatory effect of phytochemicals derived from rice bran hydrolysates suggests its therapeutic potential for further investigation.