Enzyme-treated date plum leave extract ameliorates atopic dermatitis-like skin lesion in hairless mice
Authors: Byoung Ok Cho, Jae Young Shin, Ji-Su Kim, Denis Nchang Che, Hyun Ju Kang, Hyeon Jin Kang, Hyeonhwa Oh, Young-Soo Kim, Seon Il Jang
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Objective: To evaluate the effect of different extracts of Diospyros lotus leaves in atopic dermatitis
Methods: Diospyros lotus leaves were extracted in ethanol and treated with or without hydrochloric acid or α-rhamnosidase to obtain three different extracts-ethanol, acid-hydrolyzed, and enzyme-hydrolyzed leaf extracts of date plum. The myricitrin content in all samples was measured using HPLC analysis. In vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the extracts were determined by measuring DPPH radical scavenging activities and nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 cells, respectively. Seven- week-old male hairless mice were used to evaluate the anti-atopic dermatitis effects of three extracts in vivo. Splenocytes and mast cells were used to further determine the anti-atopic dermatitis effects of the major compound in the ethanol leaf extract.
Results: Enzyme-hydrolyzed leaf extract showed significant in vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, and attenuated atopic dermatitis-like skin symptoms and clinical signs more significantly than ethanol and acid-hydrolyzed leaf extracts in 1-fluoro-2,4- dinitrobenzene and house dust mite antigen-treated hairless mice. Enzyme-hydrolyzed leaf extract also suppressed the serum level of immunoglobulin E, interleukin (IL)-4, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, thymic stromal lymphopoietin, and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine in mice with atopic dermatitis. Furthermore, histological analysis revealed that enzyme- hydrolyzed leaf extract suppressed the increased epidermal thickness, dermal infiltration of inflammatory cells, and infiltration and degranulation of mast cells more markedly than the other two extracts in atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions. In addition, this extract effectively inhibited the production of IFN-γ, IL-4,and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine compared with the other two extracts in concanavalin A-stimulated splenocytes. Myricitrin, a major compound of enzyme-hydrolyzed leaf extract, suppressed atopic dermatitis biomarkers in stimulated mouse splenocytes and HMC-1 human mast cells.
Conclusions: These results suggest that enzyme-hydrolyzed leaf extract might be a potential candidate to treat atopic dermatitis.