Chemical composition, antiparasitic and cytotoxic activities of aqueous extracts of Ziziphus joazeiro Mart.
Authors: Jacqueline Cosmo Andrade, Ana Raquel Pereira da Silva, Antônia Thassya Lucas dos Santos, Maria Audilene Freitas, Yedda Maria Lobo Soares de Matos, Maria Flaviana Bezerra Morais Braga, Camila Fonseca Bezerra, Maria Isabeli Pereira Gonçalo, Maria Celeste Vega Gomez, Míriam Rolóm, Cathia Coronel, Paulo Riceli Vasconcelos Ribeiro, Edy Sousa de Brito, Henrique Douglas Melo Coutinho
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Objective: To compare the in vitro antiparasitic activity of aqueous extracts from Ziziphus
joazeiro leaves and stem bark against Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania braziliensis, and
Leishmania infantum, as well as to evaluate its cytotoxicity in mammalian cells, in addition to
identifying the chemical composition of the extracts.
Methods: Ziziphus joazeiro leaf and stem bark aqueous extracts were prepared by cold
extraction maceration and subjected to ultra-efficient liquid chromatography coupled to a
quadrupole/time of flight system. The susceptibility assays used Trypanosoma cruzi CLB5
strains and promastigote forms of Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania infantum for
antiparasitic activity of the extracts. Moreover, mammalian fibroblasts NCTC clone 929 were
used for cytotoxicity analysis.
Results: Terpenoid compounds, flavonoids and phenolic acid were identified in extracts.
The stem bark aqueous extracts presented more significant results in terms of antiparasitic
activity compared with the leaf aqueous extracts, especially against Leishmania braziliensis
and Leishmania infantum promastigote forms with an IC50 < 500 μg/mL. The cytotoxicity
evaluation showed moderate toxicity of the stem bark aqueous extracts, which is relevant
information for the rational use of this plant part since it is widely used by the population.
Conclusions: These preliminary results may contribute to the formulation of new therapeutic
agents against this group of neglected diseases, so further investigations are required to
delineate the mechanisms of action mainly of the aqueous extract of stem bark of Ziziphus