Neem by-products in the fight against mosq uito-bor ne diseases: Biotoxicity of neem cake fractions towards the r ural malar ia vector Anopheles culicifacies (Diptera: Culicidae)
Authors: Balamurugan Chandramohan, Kadarkarai Murugan, Pari Madhiyazhagan, Kalimuthu Kovendan1, Palanisamy Mahesh Kumar1, Chellasamy Panneerselvam2, Devakumar Dinesh1, Jayapal Subramaniam, Rajapandian Rajaganesh, Marcello Nicoletti, Angelo Canale, Giovanni Benelli
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Objective: To evaluate the ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal potential of neem cake
fractions of different polarity against the rural malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies (An.
Methods: Neem cake fractions' total methanol extract (NTMeOH), total ethyl acetate
extract (NTAcOEt), ethyl acetate fraction after repartition with NTMeOH (NRAcOEt),
butanol fraction after repartition with NTMeOH (NRBuOH), and aqueous fraction after
repartition of NTMeOH (NRH2O) were tested against An. culicifacies eggs, fourth instar
larvae and adults.
Results: In larvicidal experiments, NTMeOH, NTAcOEt, NRAcOEt, NRBuOH and
NRH2O achieved LC50 values of 1.32, 1.50, 1.81, 1.95 and 2.54 mg/L, respectively. All
fractions tested at 150 mg/L were able to reduce egg hatchability of more than 50%, with
the exception of NTAcOEt and NRAcOEt. In adulticidal assays, NTMeOH, NTAcOEt,
NRAcOEt, NRBuOH and NRH2O achieved LC50 values of 3.01, 2.95, 3.23, 3.63 and
3.00 mg/L, respectively.
Conclusions: Overall, this study suggests that the methanolic fractions of neem cake
may be considered as a new and cheap source of highly effective compounds against the
rural malaria vector An. culicifacies.