Physico-chemical analysis and antimicrobial potential of Apis dorsata, Apis mellifera and Ziziphus jujube honey samples from Pakistan
Authors: Hira Fahim, Javid Iqbal Dasti, Ihsan Ali, Safia Ahmed, Muhammad Nadeem
Number of views: 344
Objective: To evaluate physico-chemical properties and antimicrobial potential of indigenous
honey samples against different reference strains including Escherichia coli ATCC 8739,
Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 13048, Pseudomonas aeroginosa ATCC 9027, Bacillus subtilis ATCC
6633, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Salmonella typhi ATCC 14028, Klebsiella pneumonia
ATCC 13883, Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404, Rhizopus oligosporus PCSIR1, Candida albicans ATCC
14053 and Candida utilis ATCC 9950.
Methods: By using standard methods samples were evaluated for their antimicrobial properties
including additive effect of starch and non-peroxidase activity, antioxidative properties (phenol
contents, flavonoid contents, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity). Prior to
this evaluation, complete physico-chemical properties including pH, color, ash contents, protein
contents, moisture contents, hydroxymethyl furfural contents, total sugar contents, reducing sugar
and non-reducing sugar contents were analyzed.
Results: Relatively higher ash contents were found in the Siddar honey i.e. (0.590 0±0.033 6)% and
small honey showed relatively higher protein contents i.e. (777.598±9.880) mg/kg. The moisture
contents of tested honey samples ranged between 13.8%-16.6%, total sugar contents from 61.672%-
72.420% and non-reducing sugar contents from 1.95%-3.93%. Presences of phenolic contents
indicate higher antioxidant potential of these honey samples. All bacteria showed clear inhibition
zones in response to tested honey samples whereas fungi and yeast showed inhibition at higher
concentrations of these honey samples. For Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhi,
Pseudomonas aeroginosa and Aspergillus niger, overall the small honey showed the higher
activity than other honey samples.
Conclusion: Physico-chemical analysis of honey samples confirmed good quality of honey
according to the standards set by European Union Commission and Codex Alimentarius
Commission. Evaluation of these honey samples confirms antimicrobial potential of particular
types of honeys indigenous to Pakistan.