Attempts of Kyivska Rus history observations are represented in the article on the basis of literature analysis . Article also
determines reasons of choice of Galytsko-Volynske principality as a main developer of civilizational and governmental progress
on Ukrainian territory in difficult ХІІІth century.
The main reason of Ruirikovytch ruling family disintegration was option of own development, legal order and civilizational
creation ways. Galytsko-Volynske and Rostovo-Suzdalske principalities became centers of new governmental projects on the
ruins of old, powerful, Eastern European empire. Heads of these principalities - Danylo Romanovytch Galytskiy and Olexander
Yaroslavovytch Nevskiy determined directions of civilizational development on the controlled areas.
Olexander and Danylo had to choose the model of their principalities evolution despite of having external enemies such as
Mongols, Hungarians, Polish, Teutons and internal enemies, among them were representatives of local nobles. So that meant that
princes had to conduct the correlation of civilizational development option of Russ for the next decades. Such correlation was
implemented during Mongolian and Aftermongolian periods. Changes concerned measures of force using to controlled
population, subjects who were able to use such force, development of Orthodoxy and sacred and religious reasoning of powers of
the prince and other ruling subjects. Innovations were implemented because of consolidated needs of separated areas,
centralization of government and capability of Mongolian domination opposition. Moreover, changes were accompanied by the
revision of byzantine and religious filling of princely, ruling method, which existed in Russ. Danylo chose eastern type of state and
society evolution but Olexander preferred Mongolian centralized autocracy. As a result, peculiar type of state was formed and
determined the development of areas for centuries in Galytsko-Volynska Russ and Northeastern principalities in advance.
Civilizational choice of Volodymyr-Suzdal principalities leaded to despotic, centralized, horde, byzantine and moscow statehood
formation in Northeastern Russ. This type of statehood was supported by orthodox hierarchs, who were coaxed by Mongolian
khans, and promoted Mongolian policy and way of ruling.
Conversely, Danylo Romanovytch selected eastern method of Slavonic civilization and state progress. Roman Mstyslavovytch
and his son Danylo Romanovytch united Southwestern and Southern principalities an gained titles ‘autocrat of all Russ’ and king
of Russ from chroniclers. Both princes aimed to become collectors of Russ’s lands and to continue affairs of Ruirikovytch dynasty.
Danylo was focused on eastern ruling tradition and attempted to integrate his principality into European civilizational
governmental type of development of those times. Family connections of Romanovytch dynasty also facilitated that integration.
New legal agreements between prince and local feudal elites and legal traditions of neighbouring European states were
implemented and distributed in Galytsko-Volynska Russ. The demand of finding new confederates for struggling against Mongols
accelerated prince’s European option. The alliance with prince Andrew Yaroslavovytch failed and his brother Olexander chose
horde way of state development. Danylo concentrated on eastern neighbors of Russ and started process of family dynastic
marriages consolidation because of not getting support for struggling against hordes from Northeastern Ruirikovytchs. Family
dynastic factor further strengthened civilizational governmental option’s direction of Ukraine at the period of Russ and provided
an opportunity of cultural and political integration into European civilization of those times.
The article is devoted to the analysis of the role of charity unions that provided aids to indigent pupils in the Ukraine in
development of public philanthropic system. The main direction of activity and special feature of functioning of these
organizations have been determined. It was established that members of local intelligentsia had taken part in this charity
Different forms of giving assistance to educational establishments like their foundation, necessary equipment supply, and
poor pupils’ support are analyzed. Charitable assistance was an important factor of primary, secondary and higher education
developing and functioning. The results of investigating the different forms of charitable assistance in the educational field of
Ukraine at the end of 19th – the beginning of 20th century, convince in the necessity of considering the experience got at that time
for the development of the modern charitable assistance activity
Reasons of conversion from individual patronage to forming civilian and institutions of tutelage have been clarified here. The
tendencies of development of charitable institutions in Ukraine have been designated here. Connection between changes in
civilian-political life and activity of rendering the charitable assistance to educational institutions have been determined as well.
In the article the economic and political relations between the Soviet power and various groups of peasants in Volyn during
the new economic policy (1921-1928) are analyzed. The analysis is based on archival documents and new research.
The relations between the Soviet power and the peasantry were complex and contradictory. By 1922 the new power had been
fighting against the insurrections and thuggery in the province. The committees of poor peasants became the basis for
agricultural policy. However, their activity was not effective. The judicial land commission finally settled the disputes between the
poor and rich peasants. The Soviet regime took away their land surplus and the part of the property. The rich peasants paid a
large agricultural tax to the state and had to hide their property and income. Collective farms were few and economically
inefficient. The rural authorities elections caused many problems and shortcoming. The rich peasants were often deprived of
their voting rights. The peasants were mostly non-party. The non-party peasant conference criticized the authorities for illegal
actions. Provincial authorities also organized a rural anti-religious campaign. The agrarian policy of the Soviet regime was
determined by political and ideological factors. The peasants’ economic interests often did not coincide with that policy. Poor
peasants opposed to rich peasants.
In the scientific article the basic stages of population expulsion from the territory of Rivne region for forced labor in Austria
It’s traced that the expulsion of Rivne region population to work in Austria and Germany, which began with the end of the
summer and autumn of 1941 and lasted until March 1944, complies with the general F. Zauckels’ four-stage program. According
to authors data, from the Rivne region were deported at least 28,783 people for forced labor in Austria and Germany,
approximately 54% were taken in 1942 marked the greatest intensity of recruiting action April-June 1942.
In 1943 the proportion exported from the region amounted to 21% of the total expulsed from the region. Most active
enforcement actions occurred in April-May 1943, after which there was a decline in the pace and at the end of the year –
reactivation process. During January-March 1944 the export of Rivne population was implemented in the form of so-called
«evacuation». According to our calculations, thus were taken about 8% of the total exported from the edge ostarbeiters. A point
in the future conductions of such actions was put by the Red Army. Anti-expulsion process to forcing labor to the Reich from the
local population, rebel and guerrilla groups complicated the implementation of the German plans in the region.
The results of the study give reasons to believe that the frequency and extent of expulsion in each of the districts of Rivne
region were different. Most residents were evacuated from Dubno, Verbskoho and Bereznovsky region. In our view, the
demographic situation in the settlements – different size and age of the population, geographical factors, the specificity of the
resistance should be considered as the reasons for the different frequency.
The article analyzes the material and technical support of everyday life of the inhabitants in Ukrainian villages in 1950-
1980s. The main directions of state social policy aiming at financial support of peasants’ everyday life in the studied period are
examined; the achievements and failures of the leadership are accentuated. The author makes the conclusion that the increase of
capital investment in the village social life resulted in positive changes. However, the funds allocated for the development of
social infrastructure in villages did not allow overcoming the gap between the village and the city. Most villages were not
properly equipped; they did not have well-established municipal services, and medical, commercial, cultural and social services
could not meet the requirements. In the late 1980s many rural residents were not able to use all amenities.
Soviet state refusal to improve technical situation in the rural areas, residual social funding, underestimation of
strengthening villagers’ material base caused in the significant problems in Ukrainian villages. Every year more and more people
moved to cities.
In article on the basis of the analysis of domestic and foreign historiography is disclosed the process of preparation and
implementation of projects of the political system in the Sejm of the Polish Republic. The author focuses on the fact that the
political system of Poland passed a certain evolutional way of European countries.
According to the author position on the first time constitutional standards had Republican device, and elections to the
Legislative Sejm of 1919, testified about the democratic direction of the state-political development of Poland. It is established
that the formation of the Polish political system due to the large number of political organizations that influenced on the
formation of the entire state vehicle. During functioning of the Seim on the development of the foundations of the state system of
Poland has faced with different attitudes regarding the state-political system of the country. Left sought parties built a system of
government that allowed to carry out government policy for the benefit of the masses of Polish society. Center-right parties
wanted to create an effective model for the development of bourgeois society. They fairly defended the idea of the need to create
conditions that exclude the possibility of conflicts between different branches of government. It is proved that in spite of different
views, in the process of political struggle and debate in the Seim, the political elite has developed the optimum for the initial stage
the model of the political system of the Polish Republic. It gave the chance to stabilize the political and modernity and economic
situation in the country.
In the article the question of the use of posters of Red Cross considered as basic agitation means in the conditions of battle
actions. In particular, accents are done in the years of Second World War and shown problems in process Society of Red Cross of
Ukraine in the today's war time on east of Ukraine.
During the First and Second World Wars, recruiting posters became extremely common, and many of them have persisted in
the national consciousness, such as the «Lord Kitchener Wants You» posters from the United Kingdom, the «Uncle Sam wants
you» posters from the United States, or the «Loose Lips Sink Ships» posters that warned of foreign spies. Posters during wartime
were also used for propaganda purposes, persuasion, and motivation, such as the famous Rosie the Riveter posters which
exhorted women workers to work in factories during World War II. The Soviet Union also produced a plethora of propaganda
posters, some of which became iconic representations of the Great Patriotic War.
And in ХХІ of century in general these placards of Red Cross almost and not evidently during realization of battle actions, in
particular on territory of Ukraine, where a population in swinging majority passes medications, foods and things through various
volunteer organizations, that arose up with beginning of war on east.
On verge of ХХ-ХХІ centuries mutual relations between Poland and Russia are characterized by complication and ambiguousness
and embrace the spectrum of the problems related to entering of Poland into NATO and expansion East of borders of the
Euro-Atlantic system of safety, and also variety of questions, in all other spheres of intergovernmental co-operation.
Plenty of problems appeared in tension that sometimes passed to sharp confrontation. Russia worried from maintenance of
status of the «large state», that, in turn, was possible on condition of maintenance of control after the countries of former socialistic
camp. Un satisfactory awareness of population of both countries in combination with dominant influence of stereotypes and insolvency of political elites to create pragmatic strategy of collaboration, deprived the Polish-Russian relations of favourable
prospects on the future. Although, after ascension to power of president А. Kwasniewski, that aimed to build mutual relations
between Warsaw and Moscow on the basis of respect to sovereignty and interests both held, an intergovernmental collaboration
Without regard to the un single prognoses of experts in relation to the consequences of European integration of Poland for
mutual relations with Russia, with her prelude of Organization of the North-Atlantic alliance agreement in March in 1999 the
relations of parties did not test substantial changes. They did not justify the foresights of neither ceptic's that warned of sharp
complication of connections between the states nor optimists that hoped on their rapid making healthy. The intergovernmental
Polish-Russian mutual relations until now mark considerable subordination to the changes of home policy situation, related to
the rotary presses in the higher echelons of power, from one side, and to politics of the third parties – the influential states of the
West, from other.
Using the comparative method, in this article the state of scientific development is analyzed by modern Ukrainian scientists
of discussion on military campaign of B. Khmelnytsky of 1649-1651. It is noted that the political decisions of the Ukrainian
Hetman under Zboriv in 1649 and Berestechko in 1651 make his image of the controversial figure of the Ukrainian statebuilding.
Y. Mytsyk indicates that the siege of Zbarazh has given the necessary preconditions for the victory in the battle under Zboriv.
Assessing the battle under Zboriv, I. Storozhenko emphasizes that it has been corresponded to the concept of the oncoming
battle and has become a model of operational-tactical solution to organize the conduction of fighting. I. Storozhenko is sure
that B. Khmelnytsky has stopped Zboriv battle and has made the Crimean Khan to do this. There is the opposite thought of
V. Smoliy and V. Stepankov, which prove that the order on termination of the battle has come from the Crimean Khan Islam-
Girey. T. Mac′kìv believes that Zboriv agreement was not adequate to an actual success of Cossack troops. T. Yakovleva adheres
to a similar thought, she writes that Zboriv agreement brightly testified that at that time the desire of ordinary Cossacks and
Hetman with his foreman much differed. O. Subtelnyi believes that among the Ukrainian masses Zboriv peace could not cause
nothing but indignation.
The controversial question is the behavior of B. Khmelnitsky under Berestechko, including his stay in the Tatar captive
camp. Certain historians, such as Polish, write about «the shameful escape Khmelnytsky from the field of battle», the others
believe that B. Khmelnytsky has followed Khan to return him to the place of battle, voluntarily has stayed with the Tatars, and
then he could not return to Berestechko. S. Storozhenko agrees with them too, who believes that in order to prevent the national
condemnation he could imitate the capture. I. Sveshnìkov argues that the absence of B. Khmelnytsky on the field of battle caused
the fact that he was captured by Islam-Girey III. V. Smoliy and V. Stepankov illustrate as proof the testimony of the participants
of the battle from the Polish, Ukrainian and even the Crimean side about the detention of B. Khmelnitsky by Khan.
The article gives the characteristic of the funds of the State archives of Poltava, Sumy, Kharkiv and Chernihiv Regions where
the files which throw light upon the problems and success of social-economic development of Left-Bank Ukraine’s towns in the
20th years of the XX century are kept. Great attention is paid to the fact that it is very important to use the materials given by
regional institutions, apart from central funds, as they give the opportunity to find out the peculiarities or general conformities
of social-economic development of the towns in this or that region, following «local vividness» in the certain historical period.
The article contains numbers and names of the funds, as well as the years which are connected with these materials. The
funds which are the most important for explaining social-economic state of the Left-Bank Ukraine’s towns in the period of the
New Economic Policy are regarded separately.
The so-called «white spots» from the fund files are pointed as well. First of all they concern the information about the
development of economy in the towns especially in the first years of the New Economic Policy. They touch upon both general and
handicraft industries, moreover private enterprises, too.
Some uncomfortable situations appear when they take into consideration towns’ budgets and trade. It is connected with the
lack of some files and often even with the absence of the ones.
It is also pointed that in spite of a partial absence of the archives, obvious materials from four Regional State funds (Poltava,
Sumy, Kharkiv, Chernihiv) permit to invest social-economic development of the Left-Bank Ukraine’s towns in 1920s.
The article the works of contemporary Ukrainian historians in the question of evolution relationship the OUN(b) and
Germany in period 1930th – until January 1942 are analized. Periods and characteristic features of these relations on each of the
stages are revealed. Noted that it issue still splits the Ukrainian society. The strategic goal of the Ukrainian liberation movement
– an independent Ukraine – a priority in its foreign and domestic policy. The relationship of the OUN(b) and OUN(m) with
Germany should be seen in the context of the national liberation struggle of the Ukrainian people. Cooperation of the OUN(b)
with Germany at all stages of defining a key and consistent thesis – the relation of the latter to the idea of an independent
Ukrainian state. Stressed that the movement of the OUN-Bandera was recognized by the Nazis are the most dangerous. Listed on
the necessity of the removal of this topic ideological and political stratifications.
The article analyzes the process of the inception and formation of the Soviet historiography of the Ukrainian SSR working
class after the war. The author argues that the first postwar essays focus on the high rate of industry recovery, raise of the
cultural and technical level of the working class. The brochures of the first postwar years with statistics of gross output volumes
provide the information only about the achievements of the Soviet planned economy, its advantage over market relations.
Subjective, politically motivated selection of facts favorable for the party doctrine, closed archives and a critical shortage of documentary publications reduced the scientific value of these works to the level of journalism, and the social and political
conditions of Soviet reality brought the role of scientists to commenting and illustrating exclusively positive aspects. At the same
time the works of the first postwar years formed the basis of the formation process of the Soviet historical literature on the
Ukrainian SSR postwar working class topic with its myths and contradictions; the Soviet concept of the problem began to emerge
and be established.
The article deals with the process of forming of the ideological basis of construction of the socialism with a human face in
Czechoslovakia in the context of the history of the crisis of 1967-1970. The problem of intellectual potential of the Prague Spring
is highlighted in the context of the analysis of the necessary set of sources. The main groups of sources on the problem are characterized; their scientific and informational value is defined. It is noted that the largest group of sources are materials
personal by origin these sources can be divided into two groups.
The first group included labor leaders and articles reformist wing of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia A. Dubčeka,
J. Smrkovskoho, O. Šika, Z. Mlynářa and other. The second – the work of members of the liberal Czechoslovak intellectuals
(I. Sviták, K. Kosik, I. Klima, V. Havel, L. Vaculik and other) and materials of Czechoslovak periodicals («Rudé právo», «Literární
noviny», «Literární listy», «Listy», «Kulturní tvorba») due to the specific of the subject of the study.
The article analyzes the personality and scientific heritage of Jerzy Giedroyc, one of the leading scientists of the twentieth
century. The influence of of the scientist in public and political transformation through the principles of patriotism and the
academic ethics. Jerzy Giedroyc was studied contribution of the process reloading the Ukrainian-Polish relations at
methodological level. Author emphasized the importance of intellectual communication and scientific dialogue, that have
become the fundamental principles of ideas Jerzy Giedroyc. Characterized its impact on the political situation in his native Poland
and Polish support for the dissident movement. Referring to the previous argument, emphasized significance of Jerzy Giedroyc
persons in bringing up several generations of fighters with totalitarianism. From the perspective of historical sciences Polish
Jerzy Giedroyc belongs to a new approach to the Ukrainian question. New approaches become consequences of work the
magazines «Culture» and «Historical Notebooks».
In the conclusion an overview of the contribution of ideas and authority Jerzy Giedroyc, that led to fundamental changes
Ukrainian, Polish and Russian historiography of science.
Considerable research interest in the development of student government in higher education of Ukraine XXI century called
reform of higher education, its entry into the European educational space. The adoption of the laws «On Higher Education»
(2002, 2014) significantly expanded the rights of the student government, which allowed students to actively participate in the
management of higher education institution.
The history of student government in the 2002-2014 has a significant amount of unexplored topics. Therefore, the urgency of
the need caused historiographical analysis of current publications and release promising areas for further research.
The problem of student government in higher education in Ukraine in 2002-2014 was the subject of many studies of
Ukrainian scientists as O.A. Andryushkova, O.F. Kayumov, O. Keane, J.P. Kraschenko, A. Kuzminsky, N.Y. Liznova, V.P. Moroz,
K.L. Potopa, O. V. Svyetlykova, G.G. Sichkarenko, L.V. Slinchenko, O.J. Tereshchenkova, V.I. Ternopilska, K.G. Trybulkevych,
S. Hakimova, O.S. Kharchenko, L.O. Shein, O. Shpakivska.
Consequently, the analysis of contemporary literature on the issue of student government in higher education in Ukraine
2002-2014 should emphasize the modern scientist’s coverage of certain aspects of its operations in dissertations, monographs
and articles. A more comprehensive analysis of the development of student government in the 2002-2014 of monographs
C.G. Trybulkevych, which disclosed the student government experience in restructuring higher education in Ukraine.
Prospects of further scientific studies will be in research of student government policies, implementation of the principles of
student government in higher educational institutions of Ukraine.
In the article the author reveals the essence of the terms «gender politics» and «gender ideology». The author explains: these
concepts are close in meaning or opposite in meaning. Thus, the author seeks to define the features of the progressive or regressive impact of these events on the Ukrainian society. The term «gender» is ambiguously perceived by Ukrainian politicians,
scientists and society. The author believes that there is a need for a clearer differentiation of these concepts. The terms «gender
politics» and «gender equality» is used to define the struggle for equal rights of women, are, in the context of democratization of
society, have a positive content. But «gender ideology» is a threat to the traditional family. The author believes that the terms
«gender politics» and «gender ideology» are opposites in meaning.
The humanitarian training of specialists in higher educational establishments helps to form national elite, promotes enrichment
and renewal of intellectual and academic national gene pool. In the course of studies «History of the Ukrainian Culture», it
is important to reveal and uncover its historical aspects for the humanitarian training of specialists, including petroleum fields of
studies. It is impossible to preserve and increase the cultural and historic heritage of Ukrainian nation without national educational
system. Special praise concerning this question belongs to metropolitan Andrii Sheptytskyi. Due to his personal work and vision of the
role of the Church, that is not limited only by spiritual role but plays also a great patriotic and disciplinary, cultural and educational
mission, the Greek-Catholic Church becomes the basis for development of modern Ukrainian nation and formation of organizations
which were supported by the Church.
The Metropolitan’s initiative, financial support and patriotism became the basis for development Ukrainian schools and
gymnasiums in Halychyna. Due to his work, old and new cultural and educational, patriotic and disciplinary societies restarted
it’s activities. According to the people’s memories, the Metropolitan always visited Ukrainians schools, gave presents to seminaries,
gymnasiums and other educational institutions. It is difficult to overestimate his role and the importance of «Prosvita» in the
development of Ukrainian national consciousness. «The society kept dozens of schools, courses, clubs, organized seminaries for
young people, published educational magazines, books, manuals, children’s literature, held meetings, performances, founded
Basing on the experience of foreign countries and the objectives of the secondary school reformation in Ukraine, the article
presents the results of the research on the main issues of interpretation of modern history education. The article clarifies the
connection between the innovations in modern historical knowledge and history education. The authors refer to the experience
of other countries. It’s difficult to determine the level and tendencies in the development of the national history education without
it. The content of historical knowledge about the present at school education in South African Republic, the Russian Federation,
Israel, Croatia, Switzerland, South Korea is regarded. The features of modern history education in view of the social needs of
Ukrainian society and the social function of history education are analysed in specific examples. The authors believe the prevention
of abuse of history, distortion the past as well as the present for propaganda purposes, the clarifying limits of contraversion
and tolerance, interrelation of traditional educational technologies and information educational technologies to create adequate
representations of the past are still relevant in Ukraine. The factors influencing on the secondary school history education and
their results are determined. Attention is paid to the positive impact of abandonment of ethnocentric approaches in school history
education for the further perspective. Concerning actual information about the present-day processes in history education,
the conclusion, that there is a dependence on а historical knowledge content and а state education policy, was reached.
This article considers the question of actuality of ongoing Ukrainian state tradition investigation in the new political
conditions of our country. Geopolitical strategies of Ukrainian state are partly covered, the attention is focused on international
recognition, sovereignty and state independence of our country. The task of the scientists concerning further thorough processing
and comprehension of our historical past, the nature and the essence of its specifics is outlined, because formation of Ukrainian
state requires the high level of national consciousness, in the formation of which historical science plays a significant part.
Therefore, the actuality of the accumulation issue of such Ukrainian nation’s historical experience from the modern point of view
is proved. Besides, it is emphasized that as well as scientists and educators mass communications are supposed to build on
positive morality and behaviour patterns, to preserve national state traditions among the youngsters, educating them in the
culture of intellectual freedom and civil responsibility.
The article comprehensively analyzes the first Poltava period of life and scientific work of the famous Ukrainian historian
Volodymyr Olexandrovych Parkhomenko (1880-1942), which accounts for its emergence as a scientist, educator and social
activist. Much better than before in the national historiography highlights its active participation in the establishment in 1906
and further productive activity of Poltava Church Historical and Archaeological Committee, engaged in the collection and
preservation of religious and other antiquities, ancient manuscripts, printed works on the history of the Poltava diocese, different
historical sources in the local church and private archives. V. Parkhomenko played a direct part in creating historical and
Diocesan Library Committee and in the two congresses archaeological pre-revolutionary times. We show how practical work in
the committee as a member and the head clerk antiquarium and in the Poltava province Scientific Archive Commission
influenced the scientific work of a young scholar and historian, in particular crystallization and further transformation of the
subject of his research interests. It was found a complete list of publications V. Parkhomenko Poltava first period, which he
disclosed publicly in such publications as «Kievan antiquity», «Poltava Diocesan Gazette» and «Proceedings Poltava Church
Historical and Arheological committee». Stated that they thematically dominated historical and church subjects, performed their
examination and proved eccentricity and originality of the content.
In 2017 it is celebrated 110 years since the birth of one of the most famous Ukrainian astronomer, the founder of Odessa
school of researchers of variable stars, the director of the Odessa Astronomical Observatory (1944-1983), Corresponding Member
of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Professor Vladimir Platonovich Tsesevich.
The scientific heritage of V.P. Tsesevich, consisting of more than 730 scientific works, requires a thorough comprehension and
systematization. In particular, the initial stages of his scientific activity, when there was a becoming of V.P. Tsesevich as a
personality and scientist, require the further research.
In the article it is presented the analysis of the early period of scientific activity of V.P. Tsesevich, disclosed conditions of
formation of a scientific world outlook and the further development of the scientist as a researcher and personality.
V.P. Tsesevich was born in Ukraine. The childhood of the future scientist was held first in Odessa, then in Petrograd (Leningrad),
where V.P. Tsesevich received his primary and higher education. The decisive influence on the formation of a scientific outlook of
V.P. Tsesevich was made by Russian Society of Amateurs of Universe Sciences and by working in the Research Institute of Lesgaft
in the laboratory of his future supervisor in graduate of Leningrad University – famous astrophysicist G.A. Tikhov. During the
working in the department of variable stars of RSAUS, the member of which V.P. Tsesevich began in 1921, there were formed the
scientific interests of the scientist, were made the first scientific publications, was happened its formation as a scientist and
expert in the field of variable stars. However, it should be noted that at an early stage of scientific activity V.P. Tsesevich defined
the vector of his research interest in the direction of Odessa – the city where he spent his childhood and where the scientist was
destined to achieve scientific peaks.
The epistolary heritage of naturalist M.I. Havrilenko has been used in the article. It has been established, that found letters
of the famous naturalist made possible to open the unknown pages of the scientists’ life and his reaction to changes in the
environment, accordingly, of the wildlife and socio-cultural space for the development of scientific research. The range of
naturalist scientists had been extended and letters of the author’s confederates allowed a deeper understanding of the processes
of zoology development during two decades of the twentieth century.
In this article highlights the outstanding work of our countryman, biochemist Erwin Chargaff from Chernivtsi, in European
and American universities. Analyzed every stage of this activity. Highlights E. Chargaff `s contribution to the development of
nucleic acid chemistry. Transformation E. Chargaff to the biochemist largely is caused by that he had entered to a small group of
biologists, who followed by the events in molecular biology and exchanged information each other. This allowed them to better
understand the molecular processes by studying them under a new paradigm, which evolved and led to the synthesis of DNA.
Chargaff made unique contribution by his own biochemical studies made in 1928-2000 in the traditions of different scientific
schools. E. Chargaff was not American, until his last days heconsidered himself as a true European.
In 1950-1953 he, studying quantitative correlation of nitrogenous bases in nucleic acids, showed that the common amount of
adenine bases, each DNA molecule equal to the number thymine, and the number guanine basics - number of cytosine. This
discovery, called «Chargaff rule» was used by F. Crick and J. Watson to construct a model of the DNA molecule. Chargaff thanks
his research discovered of species specificity of DNA. He led the significant studying of protein synthesis proses, and the definition
of DNA role in the transmission of hereditary information. Much attention scientist paid philosophical problems of science,
reflected on the moral aspects of molecular genetic experiments, interested in socio-cultural component of the development of
science in the twentieth century.