This article reveals the political element in the activities of the Masonic Order in Europe XVIII-XIX centuries. from the standpoint of
historical science. When the topic research, great attention was paid to the participation of representatives of the Masonic Order in the
various events of a political nature. Such processes include the Great French Revolution of 1789, the uprising in Southern Europe during the
XIX century. As well as representatives of the revolutionary activities of the Masonic Order in Poland in 1821-1823, respectively. A special
focus of the article was placed on the analysis of the attraction in the Masonic Order and representatives of the secular power, even
European monarchs. One of the main topics discussed in the article there is the problem of classifying the Masonic Order as a secret society
in some sense. To identify the right concepts and the possibility of identifying the Masonic Order as a secret society of a certain type in the
article were considered historical and philosophical theories related to the activities of the Order. The article was analyzed not only the
secret society, and a prerequisite to the appearance of the Masonic Order. A special place in the disclosure of this subject belongs to the
consideration of the representatives of the philosophy of the English free-thinking. Analyzing the activity of the subject was touched upon
hierarchical and organizational part of the Order. Also, for the full disclosure of political activities of the Masonic Order’s article provides an
overview of the various theories of the origin and history of the formation of a secret society. As a matter of philosophy in the article were
presented different points of view on this issue.
The presented article is an attempt of the validity approbation of the housing source of European ego-documents (F. Anselot
«Six months in Russia», A. de Custine «Russia in 1839», A. von Haxthausen «Studies of the internal relations in the ethnos life…»)
in terms of foreign travelers’ reception of national character of Russian ethnos and its class representatives.
In the research, the interpretation of travelogues has been conducted in the wake of Russian servants’ worldview dominants
and their stratification modifications and it is noted that each of voyagers with his special manner and focusing has shown the
seen and depicted mental picture of Russian society.
It is confirmed that the stratification approach with division of threefold Russian mentality classes to the following groups of
carriers as nobility, clergy and peasantry have found comparatively relevant display in the Franco-German memoir records
informatively reflecting the spiritual atmosphere of the time.
The information gleaned from European travelogues give grounds to assert that mentally different peasants’ and gentleman’
communities thought and felt in different planes. The first ones thought and felt according to the laws of mythological
consciousness, second ones were extremely between consciousness and rational utilitarianism. But this did not prevent the abovephilosophical
«descriptions» to meet the unique anthropomorphic personification as churning matrioshka doll.
The result of the studies was the creation of Russian Matrioshka mental model as the specifics of the personification of
Russians corporate class’ worldview.
In the article highlights the problem relationship to the farm as an alternative to communal ownership in government
agrarian reform projects of the Russian Empire in the early twentieth century. Attention is drawn to the discussion creation
farms Special meeting of the needs of the agricultural industryand the drafting committee of the Ministry of Interior.
The author notes that the position regarding the Special Meeting of farms was that: 1) farm recognized as effective
compared to the community form of land use, although not perfect; 2) transition from communal tenure farm ownership of land
to be progressive, non-violent.
Attention is drawn to the fact that the judgments of members of the Editorial commission observed illogic. On the one hand,
they criticize the community, on the other – endeavor to strengthen this institution, reorganization and streamlining of
redistribution. Correctly identifying the weaknesses of the community, they prefer gradual, uncertain time, transformation of
communal and homestead land ownership in cutting-farmhouse. The author believes wholly false understanding of the nature of
identification P.A. Stolypin farmhouse farming and member of the Editorial committee.
It is concluded that the farm recognized effective compared to the community form of land use, though not perfect, but the
objective reality of Russian-imperial socioeconomic and socio-political reality early twentieth century. proposed a government
commission was not enough
In the article the author considers the role of the British naval blockade on the «German policy» of the United States during
World War I. In the course of writing a research paper In the course of writing a research paper to study accents on the study of
the nature of the British naval blockade; reasons for establishing naval blockade and the influence of the blockade on relations
between the USA and Germany. The analyzed a essence of the British blockade. The author singled out main stages the
government of USA against the naval blockade. The author concluded that the diplomatic struggle against the British naval
blockade was one of the key topics of relations with Germany during the American neutrality. The main reason for the
phenomenon was the obstacle submitted by the British government to carry out trade with European countries, including
indirect trade with Germany. After the USA entry into the war against Germany the American government cancels all the
differences between the US and the UK and was the cause orders to US naval blockade of Germany.
In this article to analyzes the development of ideas of European Unity after World War I. After the completion of World War I discuss
draft united Europe has intensified. The sharp strengthening of the position of the United States, dissatisfaction metropolitan domination in
the colonies, people who were involved for military action, post-war chaos and the economic crisis in Europe created favorable conditions
for the development of the idea of European unity as the only possibility of overcoming the crisis. Under such conditions grew stronger
understanding, that only association will enable Europe to stay among the major actors in world politics. Determined what factors
influenced the emergence of the idea of European federalism. The analysis of scientific work R. Coudenhove-Kalergi«Pan-Europe», in which
he comprehensively and consistently explained the ideas of European unification, and tried to prove its necessity and its vision of the union of
European States and the creation of International Pan-European Union. He urged Europeans not to look back at yesterday, and look
forward to the future and create a European company instead of European anarchy.
A. Briand studied the idea of European integration, namely the idea of European federalism. Determined that the French idea of
European Unity were of great importance in the international legal aspect. It was concluded that because of the ideas of R. Coudenhove-
Kalergi and A. Briand is establishing a International Pan-European Union, the hose main objective was to ensure a peaceful existence across
The article focuses on the functioning of one of the Nazi concentration camps in occupied Poland, which for the Jews was the
death camp. Attention is focused on the causes and stages of camp, staff functions, the living conditions of prisoners and their
system of penalties, methods of mass destruction and concealment of traces of the crimes, the reasons for the elimination of the
camp, liberation by Soviet troops, followed the fate of the camp staff. The findings indicated that Majdanek simultaneously
perform different functions: forced labor, punitive, liquidations. Through it passed the hundreds of thousands of people, but only
the Jews (both civilian and prisoners of war) were exterminated en masse and purposefully. Other categories of prisoners died
under different circumstances, as a rule, as a waste and no longer need human material Reich, while not falling under the
compulsory liquidation. Therefore, their survival depended on them: physical and morale, motivation to stay alive at all costs,
personal connections with the camp personnel.
The article analyzes the creation of international intergovernmental organization: the Council of Europe, as an important factor in the
spread of the idea of unity on the continent and the development of integration processes. On the basis of the activities of the leading
European countries, namely Britain and France, and views of their government representatives it is discussed the theoretical foundations of
integration processes and their practical value in the future establishment of the Council of Europe. The creation of the European
organization became one of the main directions of the foreign policy of France, Belgium and the UK. Britain was considered as the main ally
of the continental countries in the establishment of the Council of Europe. It is revealed the essence of the ideas of creation of authorities in
the integration processes from the point of view of Britain and France. It is proved that the formation of the Council of Europe was the result
of a compromise between these countries, because the newly formed organization was viewed as a dynamic body. It is emphasized that the
status of the new organization was actually created by the Association of a new type, based on European values, on a shared commitment to
the fundamental values and principles of democracy. That is a community, which is based on law. It is noted that at the time of its creation it
was an organization of intergovernmental cooperation with a wide range of stated goals and limited competence. But it is emphasized that
the status of the Council of Europe was never considered as final, the supporters of European unification believed that was the first step on a
long political-legal path of European unification, which took place on May 5, 1949.
The participation of the Ukrainians of Croatia in the armed struggle for the preservation of the state in decisive moments of its history in
the twentieth century is considered in the article. The reasons of participation of the Ukrainians in the wars for independence of Croatia and
characteristics of this participation are shown. The scale and nature of the participation of the Ukrainian Diaspora in the hostilities on the
side of the Croatian armed forces are analyzed. The estimation of the importance of Ukrainian contribution to the struggle for defending the
independence of Croatia is made.
The desire to see Ukraine as an independent state like NDH (Nezavisna Država Hrvatska – Independent State of Croatia) led to the fact
that some Ukrainians began to collaborate with the Ustaše. The reason of the creation of the Ukrainian Legion was a desire to guarantee the
Ukraine’s liberation from the USSR. Germany was not interested in an independent Ukraine. Soldiers of the Legion were sent to Bosnia to fight against a communist
partisans and Serb civilian population. After the total disappointment of the Ukrainians they gradually begun to run away from the Legion.
The Croatian counterintelligence exposed the negotiations between Legion’s soldiers and Tito’s partisans to move to the side of the
communist movement. Therefore Croatian government, seeing the futility of existence of the Ukrainian Legion, decided to disband it.
The Ukrainians also served in the Croatian Naval Legion, which was based in the Ukrainian port Genichesk. Sailors were recruited
among the local inhabitants. The number of the Legion had reached 1,000 and the Ukrainians made up at least 60%. Legion led several
battles against the Soviet fleet in the Azov Sea, during which Ukrainian volunteers have deserved high praise for the courage from Croatian
In general the fate of the Ukrainians who supported the Ustaše, was complicated and tragic. During the postwar years, they were
persecuted by the communist government of Yugoslavia.
The attitude of the Ukrainian Diaspora to the Croatian-Serbian conflict in the 1990s was different from the situation in World War II. At
the referendum in May 1991 the Ukrainians and Ruthenians voted mostly for the independence of Croatia.
The Serbs have established an occupation regime for the Ukrainians and Ruthenians on the occupied territories. Except terror, our
Diaspora also fell under the «ethnic cleansing».
The reason of the antipathy toward the Ukrainians and Ruthenians was that they took an active part in the defence of Croatian
independence and its territorial integrity.
In general, 410 Ruthenian and Ukrainian fought as a part of the Croatian army. It was the highest percentage in comparison with other
national minorities. A small number of the Ukrainians and Ruthenians played a disproportionately large role in the defence of Croatia. And
for this choice they paid a high price – they were killed, repressed and deported.
In general the losses of the Ruthenians and Ukrainians during the Croatian-Serbian war were between 3,5 and 8% (whereas during the
years of World War II the loss was 2%). The situation for the Ruthenians and Ukrainians on the occupied territories had the features of
ethnocide that could lead to the disappearance of our community in Croatia.
Spain’s foreign policy towards the Asia-Pacific region is analysed. This paper devoted the efforts by government of J.M. Aznar in order to
strengthen role of Spain in region from which it has been largely absent. Despite the fact that the Asia-Pacific region is playing the leading
role in the transformation of economic power and global governance, Spain cannot put it high up on its list of priorities. One of the initiatives
of the Spanish government’s was Asia-Pacific Framework Plan 2000-2002. It’s found, that at the beginning of XXI century, during an internal
debate, the idea arose to extend bi-regional dialogue Spain-America Latina towards a trilateral dialogue which included Asia as the third
player. Parliamentary monarchy can play an important role in the process of internationalization of Asian enterprises in Europe and Latin
America. Spanish multinational companies have served as a bridge connecting Asia and Latin America.
The article examines the international cooperation between the UK and the USA in the military-industrial sector in 1997-2007. It is
characterized reasons of the interdependence of both countries on cooperation in the military-industrial direction. It deals with military industrial positive impact of international partnerships between the US and the UK on the development of international economic relations.
Special attention is paid to the introduction of certain types of advanced military weapons in the context of British-American militaryindustrial
It is revealed that international military-industrial cooperation between the two countries was important for the military-industrial
complex in the UK and allowed the British industrial establishment to participate in the creation of a number of American high technologies,
developing their own weapon’s systems. It is investigated that the British-American defense partnership had a positive influence on
industrial and technological potential and export opportunities of the both states.
It is concluded that international defense cooperation of the USA with Britain allowed controlling individual segments of the British
military-industrial complex, and American defense companies managed strategic projects to equip British military forces.
It is studied that international cooperation in military-industrial sphere had allowed the UK and the United States to conduct a
coordinated policy in the field of advanced weapons designs, which save them the status of the key worldwide arm manufacturers.
In the article the problems and prospects of cultural relations between Belarus and Ukraine, and highlights the main aspects
of the cultural policy of Belarus and Ukraine. Characterized feasibility study of this problem on the basis of socio-political and
economic factors and their influence on cultural policy. Analyzes the potential and possible development of cultural relationships
between the Republic of Belarus and Ukraine. The article reflects the cultural moments of bilateral relations. Feasibility study of
the problem based on political and economic factors and their influence on cultural relations. Analyzes the potential and possible
development of cultural relations between Belarus and Ukraine. The article highlights the main points of the bilateral cultural
relations. The purpose of the study is to try to characterize the Ukrainian-Belarusian relations in the cultural vision of Ukrainian
and Belarusian historians.
The first years of Ukrainian-Belarusian relations as independent States, on the one hand, years of unused capacity, certain
financial and border tensions, especially slow economic convergence, and the other – for years the absence of any enmity, even a
hypothetical military confrontation, friendly relations on the human level. It can be argued that the formation of the cultural
dialogue between Ukraine and Belarus are violated political confrontation. Ukrainian-Belarusian cultural contacts retain their
strength due to the large Ukrainian Diaspora in Belarus and Belarusian Diaspora in Ukraine. Belarus has all necessary
conditions for the establishment of an open democratic society, able to make progress in all areas, including in cultural life.
The US policy on Caspian region is considered in the article and especially the development and transformation of The US –
Azerbaidzan relations on the backdrop of antiterrorist fight in Washington against the Afghan Taliban deployment in the period
Washington has preferred many negotiations to address important issues, taken the position of military non-interference,
acted through non-governmental organizations and private capital by 2001. Since 2001, Americans increased their borrowing to
Tran-Caucasian and Central Asian countries for modernization of military-industrial complex to further using their bases for its
troops and to increase credit depending republics. American bases appeared there, where the passage of strategically important
oil and gas pipelines was planned by passing Russia, including the Baku – Ceyhan oil pipeline, Central Asia – the coast of the
Arabian Sea to provide military support to The US oil companies in the Caspian region. In addition, Washington has canceled or
suspended sanctions against Allied. First, it was the temporary cancellation of article 907 to the «Freedom Support Act» which
strengthened The US – Azerbaidzan relations.
The article highlights the issue of formation of economic relations of Ukraine in terms of economic security. Analyzes the
major events of the early 90th years, which have led to a special issue of mainstreaming economic security. The necessity of
raising the issue at the legislative level and scientists for further research and excavation theoretical framework on the basis of
historical experience and mistakes of Ukrainian statehood. The factors of influence are examined and classified on economic
security. Distinguishes main groups of factors such as trade-economic, monetary and financial, marketing, production and
economic. Indicate the main events that characterize the state system and approaches to different groups of factors. The
normatively-legal base of Ukraine is investigated and examples of unsolvedness of problem are made in the legal field of the
state. Investigated and analyzed the statistics of external relations from official sources.
We consider certain aspects of the history of economic relations. Ukraine requires improvements in the legislative field to
identify threats and economic mechanism of direct and latent influence to prevent such challenges. It is necessary to recognize
the relevance of these threats and to begin to address issues that concern the study immediately, otherwise Ukraine will get a
situation which was due to delay in organizing and conducting information policy. Not the last role and program of providing
objective and qualified information to prevent manipulation of public opinion. It should be remembered that the basic knowledge
of the history of Ukraine in the sphere of international economic relations is key to sustainable development and prudent in
making economic decisions both at national and at ordinary levels.
The article is devoted to the international legal principles of cooperation between Ukraine and the European Union. The
purpose of this article is an attempt on the basis of official documents and scientific literature to comprehensively analyze the
process of building relations of Ukraine with the EU in 1991-2014, and to assess the prospects for first entry to this organization.
The study is built on the basis of the historical method, which applies the principles of objectiveness, comprehensiveness,
concreteness, unity historical and logical. It highlights events which are considered in their systemic integrity, formed by the
aggregate of the identified and interrelated historical facts. The structure of the article is built mainly by consistently
chronological presentation of the material. There are used the materials of domestic specialized literature. Source database of
the research were official documents – Partnership and co-operation agreement between the European communities and their
member states, and Ukraine, the Association Agreement between the European Union and Ukraine, and others.
It is shown an active participation of Ukraine in European integration since its independence and defining the perspective
directions of its foreign policy. It is determined that at the initial stage of cooperation-based relations between Ukraine and the
EU was the Partnership and co-operation agreement between the European communities and their member states, and Ukraine.
It is suggested that the lack of constructive actions of Ukraine entailed a loss of interest of the European States participating to it.
It is analyzed the contents of the most important agreements and initiatives, the implementation of which was supposed to open
Ukraine to the path of political Association and later to economic integration.
It is concluded that international legal principles were established for cooperation between Ukraine and the EU that
reinforce the relationships between them in the status of a strategic partnership; saving only partnerships with the EU does not
meet the strategic national interests of Ukraine and requires new actions on the approximation of the criteria for full
membership in the European Union. It is noted that the main document for cooperation is the Association Agreement between
the European Union and Ukraine. Although it does not prejudge the future development of relations between them, at the same
time performing of all tasks in the economic, political and legal spheres, prescribed in the Agreement would make Ukraine’s
The article deals with the formation and development of Canadian-Russian economic relations, since 1991 until today, reflects
the history of the formation of bilateral relations. The main focus was on the consideration of the evolution of the relationship
between Canada and the Russian Federation and the analysis of the dynamics of their development.
The article deals with the current state of the Canadian-Russian relations and compares the development of the two economies
of Canada and Russia. The main characteristics that emphasize the similarity between Canada and Russia in political, economic
and cultural spheres, were indicated . The basic advantages and disadvantages of Canadian economic policy were highlighted
in this article. The author studies the main reasons of the growing interest of Russia to Canada. Special attention was
paid to the contractual and legal base of Canadian-Russian relations and was set strategic directions Canada-Russia partnership
and future forms of cooperation.
The basic problems of economic cooperation between these countries were revealed. Basic restrictions, which suspend trade
and economic dialogue between these countries were determined. The author describes Canada as a powerful state, which plays
an important role in the international arena. The main causes of cooling of relations between Canada and Russia, was caused by
«Ukrainian crisis»? which is starting in 2014. New position of Canada in the Russian-Ukrainian conflict is analyzed. The consequences
of deteriorating relations between Canada and Russia were outlined, namely the suspension of economic and military
cooperation with Russia. New areas of cooperation of Canada with Latin America and developed countries of Asia Pacific region
The life and creative achievements for the needs of the organization of scientific and educational support conducting domestic
agriculture of the prominent agrarian scientist, one of the organizers of the agricultural experimental work as an organization and branch
of knowledge, the first Russian professor of agriculture (agronomy) Michael G. Livanov (1751-1800) are reconstructed in the article. His
contribution to theorizing and practical propositions conduct of steppe agriculture and animal husbandry is contextually considered. His
achievements on keeping rational housekeeping on the ground, adapted to the present, are analyzed. Some of them stay program for the
introduction of organic farming. It has proved that M. Livanov’s book «On agriculture, cattle breeding and poultry farming» gave the
countdown of the scientific debate, which is still taking place on expediency plowing or no implementation. The place and role of created by
him the Epiphany School of Farming Practice in 1790 for the establishment and development of a special branch of education and its
differentiation are revealed.
Preconditions of the beginning of naturalists’ societies at the universities of Ukraine at the end of the sixties of the 19th
century are revealed in the article. Political, economic and scientific preconditions should be noted among them. Just in the
course of large-scale changes of that time the science of our country was developing. The University Regulations of 1863
contributed to the realization of the intention of leading naturalists concerning the arrangement of scientific societies. The
development of science was caused by objective circumstance of the development of capitalist relations and economic reforms.
The activities of scientists and practical realization of their ideas depended on the social and political situation, in which they
had to work. The experience of foreign and home progressive science, the development of natural sciences, the appearance of
Charles Darwin’s evolutional theory and the self-awareness level of leading domestic intellectuals also promoted the beginning
of the societies. Сarrying out a wide range of scientific investigations in different branches of sciences and spreading this
knowledge among the people became the leading motive of the activities of naturalists’ societies. The First Congress of Russian
Naturalists, taking place from the 28th of December, 1867 to the 4th of January, 1868, under the supervision of Karl F. Kessler,
played a decisive part in making the societies. The decision on the creation of naturalists’ societies was reached exactly at this
The article reflects the socio-political and economic preconditions of formation of scientific cells of Ukraine in the period of development
of capitalist relations. Outlines the reasons that encouraged scientific intelligentsia to unite for the development of natural science, which
contributed to the strengthening and establishment of national education.
The author examined the motives which induced the Patriotic intelligentsia to develop science and education, to disseminate scientific
advances among wide layers of the population, particularly the young. The study examines the ideas, problems, specific approaches to the
establishment and organization of scientific societies. The article reveals the historical conditionality of development of progressive ideas of
scientists in the period of development of capitalist relations.
In the article describes the contribution of count S.Y. Witte in the development of railway transport. The author in a concise
manner described the so-called «railway pages» of life and activity of S.Y. Witte. A special attention is paid to the contribution of
S.Y. Witte in the development of the system of railway tariffs for transportation of goods. Describes other railway interests of
Thus, he began by that increasing the capacity of the railway he brought an important measure – namely began to form
locomotive brigades. As a result, the locomotives did not «have a rest» together with a machinist, but worked twenty-four-hour –
and in the day-time, and at night. Locomotive brigades changed only. In war, Witte arranged dispatch of military trains one after
the other at intervals of 20-25 minutes. Here, of course had taken place big risk, but there were no accidents. In 1880, he became
one of the members of the famous Baranowski Commission, which was called «To investigate the railway business in Russia».
Active work in this Commission led to the fact that he was one of the developers of the «General Statute Russian railways».
Witte saw his main goal in increasing profits and reducing deficit. For increase profits should be brought in railway cargo,
including from other transport modes. In order to increase cargo turnover on the borders of the state, S.Y. Witte signed a series of
conventions with the German, Austrian and Romanian railways about the opening on all border stations agencies to
«implementation customs measures» under orders of the consignor. S.Y. Witte firmly advocated for the process changes cargo
handling works on stations. If before Witte’s arrival such work was performed by contractors, since his arrival in the South-
Western railway, a special train service made this work. This innovation has brought customers rail significant savings.
The academician І.H. Aleksandrov (1875-1936) is a prominent scientist and engineer in the spheres of hydraulic engineering
and hydro power engineering. I.H. Aleksandrov is well-known as an economist, an economical geographer, an active participant
in developing the GOELRO Plan and in elaborating the scheme for economical districting of the former USSR including Ukraine.
I.H. Aleksandrov constructed «Dniprohes» (being there the Chief engineer) and a number of others large hydraulic structures.
That is why the hydraulic component occupies the principal place in his researches. I.H. Aleksandrov’s scientific papers list
analysis clearly proves his keen interest in the problems on organizing the irrigating works in the Central Asia, on the Angara
river exploring, on the hydraulic engineering for Chyrchyk-Chatkal industry-and-irrigation complex, in the problems connected
with the hydro power plants’ classification, with the trans-Volga region irrigation involved into the solution of the Great Volga
problems, with the challenges of «Dniprohes» construction etc. Conducting researches in the Syrdar’ia river water-shed, Ivan
Havrylovych Aleksandrov apprehended the unique value of the central Asian rivers as a powerful source for receiving cheap
electric energy, having linked this receiving with the construction of irrigational structures. I.H Аleksandrov took also an active
part in the BAM railway plan’s working out and in the problems on constructing stone-made embanking dams.
The article analyses the hydraulic engineering projects by academician I.H. Aleksandrov worked out as the result of his
researches in the Syrdar’ia river watershed, his projects for South-Eastern Fergana and Tashkent regions’ irrigation. For the first
time the scientist considered the close combination of the irrigation challenges with those of utilization of the hydro power
supplies available in the Central-Asian rivers. The projects on combination of the irrigation challenges with the receiving of
cheap electrical power by means of the structures constructed on large irrigational canals and water-storage dams, put forward
by I.H. Aleksandrov, were completely original and innovated in the hydraulic engineering of the 1920-ies.
The article is devoted to the activities of Oppokov Eugene Vladimirovich during the West expedition for dehumidification in
Polesia and Chernihiv district as an engineer of hydrotechnics (land development engineer). Having drawn attention that
swamps dehumidification already in the first years produced questionable results we understood the consequences of such
processes. Namely − the complex of problems for local inhabitants and it caused concerns for the Organization of United Nations
because of the surplus greenhouse gases emission in the atmosphere by dehumidificated peatbogs. The general aspects of the
scientist’s works in comparison with the other scientific literature in that sphere of those times have been analyzed. We have
proved that in the end of XIX century − beginning of XX century there were other types of soil dehumidification. But because of
the E.V. Oppokov’s leading positions in the Academy of sciences and its departments that short-sighted method of soil quality
There is the theoretical and methodological foundations chemical soil reclamation of Ukraine, as a way of improving the
physical properties of soil in the article. As a result of this analysis the means of calcium in the soil and its needs, methods and
standards placers were set by Ukrainian soil scientists during 1920-30s
Scientists have developed the practical tips for employees of state farms and collective process for direct soil liming. There are
three main groups of soil: saturated with calcium (black), the lowest saturated (chestnut, brown soils) and low saturation of
calcium (salt). Scientists have shown the calcium in the soil doesn’t neutralize the acidity, and the most importantly - its makes
better his physical, microbiological and dynamic properties. You can help the increased of the harvest from using of the irrigation
and lime. This method was accelerating the exchange reaction of sodium with calcium absorbing complex and product of this
exchange, allowing secure preferred calcium. It was assumed that gypsum, combined with irrigation, deep plowing and manure,
will be a reliable method of soil improvement.
Contribution of the doctor of agricultural sciences, professor M. Kravchenko to the development of the global problems of our time –
biodiversity preservation was justified. The scientist developed a program of selection improvement of one of the native breed – of White-
Headed Ukrainian. Waste advantages are a strong constitution, high reproducible quality, good viability, flexibility, long duration of use,
adaptation to breeding in local conditions, high feed conversion. Based on a thorough analysis of genealogical he found major obstacles to its progressive development: long-sided selection of animals for milk production, artificial distribution of breed on the basis of color, and
insufficient number of livestock and breeding farms. As the main levers of its breeding in conditions within-breeding he considered
purposeful selection, avoidance of inbreeding, line breeding, estimation of animal pedigree value and others. To improve the constitutionalexterior
features, increase in milk production of animals M. Kravchenko demonstrated the efficacy of induction crossing with other breeds.
The measures developed by scientist have helped significantly to increase the milk production, technological qualities of the breed. The
author proved that the measures of improvement and rational use of White-Headed Ukrainian breed developed by M. Kravchenko should be
used in developing of modern strategies of domestic breed gene pool preservation, which is one of the most pressing problems of our day.