This article deals with a consideration of the concept '"communication of natural-historical museums which is defined as process of conveying the information by means of demonstration to different groups of visitors numerous exposition materials, the usage of other in and out of the museum forms of educational work, the publication of printed and electronic editions as well as through service of various professional categories and representatives of public organizations by means of a museum assembly, a databank of the museum information and a museum site. The primary goals of the communication of natural-historical museums are: spread of knowledge about natural-historical heritage, formation of ecological outlook of the population and granting the information services to a specialized museum audience.
In the arealogical composition of the Carpathians’ vascular flora two types of geoelements, 10 geoelements, 85 distributional groups, 19 linking groups of species have been ascertained. The distribution of different geoelements throughout the area of the Carpathians is uneven. Arctic-alpine and altimountaine species are concentrated in the high-mountain massifs of the Western, Eastern and Southern Carpathians, Balkan species – in the Eastern and Southern Carpathians, submediterranean – in the Southern Carpathians and on the southern slopes of the Western Carpathians. The accessory groups of Eurasian and European geoelements are evenly distributed throughout the whole region.
Prodromus of ruderal vegetation of flood plain ecosystems in the upper part of the Western Bug river basin, including 2 classes, 2 subclasses, 3 orders, 5 allianses, 11 associations, 4 subassociations, 1 variant and 5 communities is compiled. A new association Alopecuro geniculati – Cirsietum arvensis with two subassociations: A. g.-C. a. typicum and A. g.-C. a. trifolietosum repentis (All. Arction lappae R.Tx. 1937 em. 1950 Cl. Artemisietea vulgaris) is described.
This article presents the results of phenological observations of the seasonal development of four populations of Campanula carpatica Jacg. It also gives proofs that different meteorological conditions of vegetation seasons influence the beginning and duration of the phenology phases. These phases are also influenced by the amount of light, the altitude and the slope exposition.
This article gives a description of the anatomic structure of the roots of the different age individuals of Verbascum nigrum L. and Verbascum thapsiforme Schrad. Multiserial wide beams, dismembering the secondary phloem and secondary xylem on separate sectors are considered to be the diagnostic features of the given species. The vessels are placed in a diffused way (singly or in fine groups) and have a small diameter. The limits of the annual growth of wood are not expressed.
The temporal structure of Tern colonies is an important characteristic of their spatial and functional organization. In this paper we have considered the general chronology of a nesting period, colony formation and indices of breeding synchronization within colonies. The influence of climatic conditions and different habitat choice on the temporal structure of colonies as well as the impact of other bird species in polyspecies colonies have been analyzed.
This article shows the results of a study conducted on a considerable quantitative material (more than 13,000 individuals from 56 samples) and proves the relative stability of the polymorphic structure of C. hortensis colonies in the period of 1998 to 2004. It concerns not only the frequency of the banded shells, total frequency of the shells with fused bands and frequency of the dominant phenotypes with fused bands. The absolute and relative frequency of the occurrence of the basic fusion types (regardless of the phenotypes) can also remain relatively stable both on one and neighbouring sites. The proposed method of the analysis of the quantitative distribution of fusion types permits to reveal specific features of the polymorphic structure of C. hortensis colonies.
This article presents data on a species variety of spiders of the natural and transformed ecosystems in the ashen oak groves of the Verkhniodniestrovska plain. It shows the main features of the formation of the araneofauna of the woods with a changed hydrological mode, in the afforestations and on the territories deprived of woods. The cluster analysis of the faunistic similarity of sites with a various degree of the transformation of a vegetative cover has been conducted.
A structure and functions of a bumblebee community in meadow habitats situated at the altitude of 600-800 m above sea level have been studied. The community under consideration consisted of 15 bumblebee species which were foraging or feeding (cuckoo-bumblebees) on 21 species of plants flowering in the studied period. A high species diversity and a complex structure of the community are indicative of the availability of favorable conditions for its existence.
A complex evaluation of the ecological functions of anthropogenic soils and corresponding micromycetic communities aiming at finding a mechanism of their structural and functional modification has been conducted. It has been proved that the direction of ecological successions follows both the endogenous mechanism (change in numbers and significance of the hyphomycetes taxa) and exogeneous factors (input of the organic substrata.
The main transformation factors of the environment which negatively influence the composition and distribution of the avifauna are the following: drainage land-reclamation, construction, large scaled and uncontrolled wood cutting as well as peatary in the Dniester valley. The influence of land- reclamation has led to a sharp decrease in numbers of waterfowl and near-water birds and to inhabitation by field species previously too moist biotopes. Uncontrolled wood cutting has threatened the existence of near-water birds in the Carpathians. Peatary has led to the devastation of large areas of the former marshes and to frequent inflammability of these areas. Although the urbanization causes the ousting of forest and near-water birds from their typical habitats, it promotes the increase in numbers of synanthropous species.
The changes in the structural organization of a soil collembolan community in response to a continuous deforestation have been investigated. The increase in species richness and density of a collembolan population, partial substitution of dominant species, modification of a life-form spectrum in collembolan communities with a sharp prevalence of deep-soil biomorphs have been recorded. On the whole, the changes in the collembolan community structure in the soil of a forest clearing reveal the minor disturbances of the primary forest community of springtails and demonstrate a high reserve of firmness of this model group of a soil biota.
This paper deals with the species composition, peculiarities of the ecology and invasion by the larval forms of Trematoda of the family Planorbidae collected in pools of the upper Dniester basin. As a result of the conducted malacological analysis, we have found out 12 species of freshwater snails. The influence of the environmental conditions brings about their uneven distribution in pools. The analysis of the parasitological situation in the examined pools showed 13 species of the larval forms and the partenit of trematodes. Overflow channels and temporary biotopes turned out to be the most dangerous episiotically and can be a center of the appearance of paramphistomatosy and echinostomatosy.
A comparative analysis of the conchology features of the land snail H. pomatia from Western Ukraine and marginal populations widespread on the southeast edge of the species area has been conducted. It shows the decrease in the shell size in the marginal populations, however the basic shell indexes remain unchanged. This fact may be explained by the rise in spire growth speed in the South- Ukrainian populations of H. pomatia. A possible role of the climatic selection in the formation of the conchiometry variability of H. pomatia from the marginal populations has been analyzed.
The molluscs fauna of the Planorbinae subfamily in Ukraine counts up to 25 species, which can be met in various types of water bodies (flowing and poorly flowing water-currents, constant, half- periodic and periodic ponds). The species composition, occurrence and density of small snails in various water bodies are analyzed in this article. It is ascertained that intermediate hosts of Liorchis scotiae and Paramphistomum ichikawai are 16 and 6 species of small snails accordingly. The highest parameters of the invasion extensiveness of Planorbinae are marked in half-periodic water-currents, a little smaller - in periodic and constant reservoirs, the least - in poorly flowing water-currents. Flowing water-currents are deprived of paramphistomids.
Based on the mathematical modeling with the use of data finding methods, a hierarchy of the significance of ecological factors to the distribution of hydrophytes in the green zone of Lviv has been ascertained.
The contents and composition of the organic substance of brown mountain-forest, turf-podzolic, podzolic-turf, grey podzolic and meadow soils of the primary ecosystems of the Upper Dniester basin have been learnt. The variety of humus formation in different natural environments has been analysed. As a result of the investigation, 3 types of the humus state of soils have been differentiated.
The main stages of study of some insect orders in Lviv City are briefly stated. Some quantitative and qualitative changes in entomological faunas in urban environment during the last 140 years have been analized.
75 species of ground beetles in Zakarpattya region are suggested for protection, from which: 2 – are included in the European Red List (1991), 1 – in the Red Book of Ukraine (1994) and 25 – in the Red List of Beetles of Poland (2002).
A variety of forest communities in some reserves in Western Ukraine has been investigated. It has been established that mainly stable mixed communities of fur-trees, beeches, pines, abies and birches are protected. However, some negative tendencies of their anthropogenous transformation are observed. Unfortunately, the communities of oak trees are represented in the reserved fund quite unsufficiently, mainly through artificial, valueless plantations of trees.
This article shows the results of the investigation of the Platanthera chlorantha population in the Yavorivsky National Natural Park. Nowadays the state of P. chlorantha coenopopulation is fairly good: it is numerous, presented by four main age groups, the age spectrum is right-side with the peak at the adult vegetative group. The high rate of pre-generative plants indicates the sufficient seed reproduction.