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Visceral leishmaniasis: A literary review
Authors: Antonio Ricardo Lisboa, Anderson Angel Vieira Pinheiro, Antonia Elinaíde Ferreira Dantas, Itatyane Batista de Oliveira, Tiago Rozendo Evangelista, Kennaline Kessia Egidio Andrade Pereira
Number of views: 541
The leishmaniasis is a zoonosis systemic reported mainly in countries with a tropical climated and transmitted by phlebotomines. For being a zoonosis which affects both the man as the animals and, recently, a large increase in its epidemiological data, ruled in establishing a review from clinical-epidemiological aspects until the new studies that aim new substances for the treatment of the disease. Therefore, a literature consulted it was based on the use of Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, “CAPES” periodicals and academic bibliography. Studies have shown the clinical aspects that the zoonosis entails and the epidemiological data of our country. In Brazil, Leishmania (L.) chagasi is the infecting form, being that for differential diagnosis, it uses biochemical, immunological and /or anatomopathological devices. To date the Lutzomyia longipalpis and Lutzomyia cruzi species are related to the transmission of the disease in Brazil. The main host is the dog (Canis familiares) and is the major source of transmission of the parasite for man. The laboratory diagnosis is based on parasitological, immunological / munofluorescence and ELISA. The clinician relies on signs and symptoms, compiled with the laboratory. The treatment is based on only two drugs: antimoniate n-methyl-Dglucamine and amphotericin B. Therefore, is necessary to invest in studies and development of new drugs, whether they are derived from natural product or synthetic and from vaccines for humans that may act against this zoonosis, since, resistance to the drugs used has already been observed. Measures aimed at reducing transmission are essential, as well as, the early and high sensitivity diagnosis of infected dogs to initiate appropriate treatment.