The cervicobraquialgia is neck pain radiating to the upper extremities. it is a clinical syndrome that can be caused
by various pathologies.
Cobb syndrome is the association of a vascular malformation that involves the skin and vascular malformation of the spinal cord.
We present a patient with cobb syndrome cervicobraquialgia and managed by the department of neurosurgery,
university hospital Cari in Barranquilla, Colombia.
Keywords: cobb syndrome, cervicobraquialgia, spinal vascular malformation, angiomatosis meningocutaneoespinal.
Aesthetic dentistry is a multidisciplinary component of total facial aesthetics and create an optimal smile requires
the integration of all disciplines in dentistry.
In any restorative treatment plan should be considered periodontal health and appearance. That is, they must assess
the demands of the periodontal tissues in order to achieve lasting results. For the dentist, periodontal health and
periodontal aesthetic criteria of fundamental importance to dentistry.
Most dental procedures performed, have a direct or indirect effect on increasing the aesthetic dentofacial the smile
of gingiva, marginal rim discrepancy and lack of taste, are some ugly situations periodontal that people typically
want to improve and cosmetic gingival contouring may be the procedure to provide harmony to the smile. In some
of these situations, the altered position of the teeth, it is preferable to correct the cosmetic problem, but in other patients these alterations must be made with gum surgery and optimal treatment plan to further improve the
aesthetic appearance of tooth.
The purpose of this paper is to describe the surgical correction of gingival margins as a cosmetic treatment that has provided periodontal changes to treatment plans and sequencing and integration of procedures within the overall therapy.
Keywords: gingival surgery, smile design, dental esthetics, gingival hyperplasia, gingivectomy.
The odontoma is the mixed odontogenic tumor observed with greater frequency. Cells and tissues are normal in
structure but is defective in pattern. Etiology is associated with remainders of malassez paradentales tissues and
trauma and injuries. They are growing limited, asymptomatic, produce tooth retention. They were classified as
compound and complex radiographic radiolucent halo is presented with multiple radiopaque images inside it, with a
pattern for the ordered compound odontoma and complex odontoma presents the image as radiopaque amorphous
clusters with a disordered pattern. The treatment is surgical and recurrence is low.
We report the case of female patient aged 30, who attended the service of dentistry and oral surgery at the University
of Cartagena Colombia, that presented tumor that invades the bodies of 33 and 34 teeth was performed radiographic
examination with a presumptive diagnosis of odontoma compound, surgery was scheduled and performed enucleation
of the tumor which was sent to pathology in the histopathological report was diagnosed like compound odontoma.
Keywords: odontoma, compound odontoma.
In the present article we analyse and expose some characteristics of temperament and its role in the regulation of the
personality. To go deeper in the understanding of this aspect we most take into account some important research of
investigators on this topic. In this way we have found a difficult panorama that tells us about a proper business of
Psychological Sciences, that is why different schools, tendencies and paradigms have appear. This panorama carries
out ontological, epistemological and methodological implications about the inflation that the term ¨temperament¨
has suffered. Although we can find some pioneer studies regarding temperament, we can not find any concluding
aspect, however the fast development of genetic and neurophysiologic sciences shows important advances in the
study of temperament. It is also important to study the temperament together with the personality as a higher step
of structure and regulation of psiquis from a biopsycosocial focus.
Keywords: Temperament, biopsycosocial determinants of development, personality.
Is reported a clinical case of a horizontal root fracture in a maxillary left central incisor that was spontaneously
repaired without any dental treatment is reported. The root fracture was diagnosed in an x-ray endodontic examination
routine fourteen years after receiving the trauma due to changes in the color of the tooth and asymptomatic, x-ray
examination showed a radiolucent zone apically, reason why the patient was sent from orthodontic service to
endodontic service at Dentistry School of Cartagena University.
Radiographs examination showed a line of horizontal fracture between the union of the cervical third with the
middle third and in addition there is a bone defect at the same level of the root fracture.
Root canal treatment is done without any complication.
This case is surprising because of the spontaneous repair with no dental treatment and without emitting a fracture
diagnosis to radicular previously.
Keyword: repair, endodontic, spontaneous, fractured.
In Colombia, the cigarette smoking varies according to the region. However, variables associated with daily cigarette
smoking are unknown almost all of these cities. The objective of this research was to establish the prevalence
and factors associated with the daily cigarette smoking at the city of Bucaramanga, Colombia. A cross-sectional
study was carried out. A multistage and representative sample from the general population was surveyed. Smoker
denomination was given to persons who smoke everyday during last-month. The General Health Questionnaire was
used in order to identify anxiety and depressive symptoms. A total of 2,496 adults participated in this research, with
aged between 18 and 65 years-old (mean 34.5, SD = 12.5), 69.7 % were females, average scholarship was 9,2 years
(SD = 4.1), 49.1 % had an employ, 58.1 % were married, and 67.8 % was dwelling in medium socioeconomic
status. The prevalence of daily cigarette smoking weighted by gender was 12.5 % (95 % CI 11.2-13.8). The daily
cigarette smoking was associated with being a male (OR = 3.2; 95 % CI 2.3-4.4), alcohol abusive consumption
(OR = 3.2; 95 % CI 1.9-5.5), daily caffeine drinking (OR = 2.7; 95 % CI 2.0-3.6), meaningful clinically anxiety and depressise symptoms (OR = 2.6; 95 % CI 1.8-3.7), less education (0-5 years compared with 6-11 years, OR
= 0.84; 95 % CI 0.61-1.2; and 12 o more OR = 0.52; 95%CI 0.33-0.81), and being a single person (OR = 1.6; 95
% CI 1.2-2.2). As conclusion, almost 12.5 percent of urban adults of Bucaramanga, Colombia, are daily cigarette
smokers. It is very important to promote smoking cessation in this population.
Keywords: Smoking, epidemiology, prevalence, general population, adults, cross-sectional study
The trauma constitutes one of the principal problems of public health in the world and particularly, in Colombia for
the high incident and the implications medicate, social, economic and moral. In the United States it is the first reason
of death in 45-year-old minors and the fourth one in all the groups of age. The present article tries to contributeto
the knowledge of the physiopathology of the brain traumatic injury as a tool in the constant improvement of the
carrying patients of this pathology.
Keywords: brain trauma, brain traumatic injury, prehospitalary atention, neurotrauma
The present article had as main objective to Describe the Social Representations of the Environmental Education,
from the categories “knowledge, attitude and perception”, a focus of descriptive investigation, developed through
the specific methodology that he/she offers the Theory of Facets for the construction of an agile instrument for the
mensuration of the outlined objectives. The study was developed with 120 fellows, all students of the University
of the Magdalena of recruit’s semesters at tenth. The conceptual boarding of the social representations that offers
Jodelet and Moscovici, allowed to understand it in its classification of: knowledge, attitude and perception, and
the results throw that as for the knowledge they are in the inferior limit, while as for attitude and perception of the
Environmental Education, they are in the superior limit.
Keywords: Social Representation, Environment, Environmental Education.
The arrhythmias are defined as “any abnormality in the frequency, regularity, or site of origin of the cardiac impulse
or conduction disorder that produces an alteration in the atrial or ventricular activation”; whereas tachycardia is
defined as a “heart rate in adults greater than 100 beats per minute”. Therefore, supraventricular tachyarrhythmias
are “those tachycardias who require atrial tissue or atrioventricular conduction for its initiation and maintenance”.
This article explains the electrocardiographic characteristics of those arrhythmias from atrial tissue.
Keywords: Tachyarrhythmia, Tachycardia, Atrial, Auricular, Fibrilation, Flutter, Sinusal, Electrocardiography.
Facing the present day situation in regard to persons getting old, the present investigation intended to design a proposal
of a an educative program for the preparation of retirement directed to old person who want to retire in Santa Isabel
de Las Lajas town, Cienfuegos, Cuba. The investigation had two phases. One devoted to make a diagnostic (January
2007 –June 2008) and the other devoted to design the educative program (June 2008—January 2008). The diagnostic,
applied in San Isabel de Las Lajas, Cienfuegos, Cuba, consisted in identifying the factors which influence on the
process of adaptation of the already 164 retired subjects and three teams that formed part of the sample encharged
of facilitating information. To accomplish the investigation different methods and techniques were carried out such
as questionnaires, interviews, surveys, the Ishikawa diagram, Method of Ranking, and the DAFO matrix in order to
know the causes that originated the phenomenon. Afterwards, time was devoted to design the educative program
which took into account the methodology and its validation for the corresponding specialists. This analytical process helped to identify the sociocultural, familiar and individual factors and its psychological repercussion. At the same
time, it was known that there is not a specific program to prepare persons in retirement age.
Keywords:Retirement; educative program; sociocultural, familiar and individuals factors; psychological repercussion;
adaptation to retirement.
En el estudio de cualquier patología somática se hace necesario conocer las particularidades psicológicas del
enfermo, estudiar el cuadro interno de la enfermedad. Considerando estos criterios, por la importancia del tema en
cuestión y debido a la existencia de pocos estudios realizados, el objetivo del presente trabajo consiste en describir
las particularidades del Cuadro Interno de la Enfermedad de los pacientes estudiados con Cardiopatía Isquémica
en El Hospital Universitario Camilo Cienfuegos de la provincia de Sancti Spíritus. Cumplimentar el objetivo fue
posible con la utilización, en la muestra seleccionada, de varias técnicas y métodos diagnósticos como: Entrevista
semiestructurada al cardiólogo del paciente, Entrevista semiestructurada al paciente, Diferencial Semántico de Salud
y Modificación de la escala de autovaloración Dembo – Rubinstein. Los resultados arrojaron que este tipo de paciente
posee un adecuado conocimiento de la enfermedad que padecen, no siendo así respecto a las modificaciones
saludables que deben realizar en su estilo de vida. La misma les resulta dolorosa, manifestando que piensan mucho
en su enfermedad; valorándose a sí mismo como una carga y sin que la misma implique trastornos en la sexualidad.
Tienen una adecuada valoración de su estado de su salud y su carácter se ve afectado en períodos de crisis de la
enfermedad, lo que no limita sus aspiraciones en la vida. (DUAZARY 2010, 60 - 70)
Palabras Clave: Cuadro Interno de la Enfermedad, Cardiopatía Isquémica.
Leprosy is a chronic bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium Leprae, an acid-fast bacillus forced to live in the
intracellular space mainly in Schwann cells and macrophages, which affects the skin, nerves and eyes. The existence
of the disease knows since antiquity, but still remains a serious public health problem worldwide especially in
endemic areas. Its clinical spectrum is given by the response generated for the immune system against the bacillus.
Today we know different forms of disease presentation, including the determined poles as the tuberculoid and
lepromatous, the indeterminate and borderline leprosy. Early diagnosis is the main tool to achieve appropriate
treatment, prevent disabilities and rehabilitate the sick patient. The treatment set by the WHO since 1984 consists
in a multidrug therapy based on the classification paucibacillary or multibacillary, according to the number of skin
lesions and the number of bacilli presents in biopsy. We report the case of a female patient, 51 years old, diagnosed
with Borderline Lepromatous Leprosy, who presented a leprosy reaction, type I and drug allergy. We discuss the
diagnostic and the treatment employed.
Keywords: Leprosy, borderline lepromatous leprosy, leprosy reaction, drug allergy, treatment.
Periodontitis is a complex tissue damage to the supporting structures of teeth due to the effect of the immune
response. However, the components nature of the process are of interest to many researchers and were determined
through experimental studies of some molecules that activate a protein and / or regulating other substances or
cells for the development of the lesion. The aim of this literature review is to conduct a critical analysis of available
evidence on the expressed proteins in chronic periodontitis. We identified relevant publications through a search
of electronic databases such as MEDLINE, EBSCO HOST, and The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. To be
included in the review, studies had to define the protein investigated in patients with chronic periodontitis. Of the
1210 articles retrieved from the initial phase of the review, only 175 were available in full text and they only met
the requirements including 25 articles, which were confronted, analyzed and discussed later. Available evidence
shows that proteins play an important role in signal transduction and using various means to activate chemical
compounds contribute to the development of chronic periodontal lesions.
Keywords: periodontal diseases, bacteria, interleukins, proteins.
Various studies have indicated a close relationship between the syndrome of burnout or burnout (burnout) and
health problems, relating to the syndrome as a cause of deteriorating working conditions and the source of accidents
and absenteeism workforce, especially in healthcare and education. This study aimed to establish and describe
the existence of burnout in medical specialists working in a tertiary University Hospital of the City of Santa Marta,
Colombia. The population consisted of 56 medical specialists associated with that institution, to which we applied the
Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), taking into account age, expertise and bonding time. The data were processed by
SPSS software, 15.0V, using descriptive statistics to establish the level of burnout in this population. We found high levels of emotional exhaustion (94.6%) compared with the other two variables, while depersonalization (53.6%)
and lack of personal accomplishment (53.6) at an average level, establishing the presence burnout syndrome in
a mid-level medical specialists at University Hospital. These results are consistent with other similar studies. The
authors recommend continuing with other studies including new variables and organizational and personal actions
to prevent burnout source of job stress and improve the quality of health services in the District of Santa Marta.
Keywords: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, lack of personal accomplishment, burnout, Burnout.
The research was conducted with the objective to establish and describe the presence or absence of burnout (burnout)
on university lecturers, taking into account their age and type of attachment. This is a descriptive, cross sectional,
which had as Teachers representative sample of 225 university students (full-time faculty, part-time and contracted
hours), all with teaching experience and linking more than five years working in a Public University. We applied
the “Inventory of the Maslach burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory, MBI) form of education. The results show
the predominance of low scores in the three dimensions of Inventory (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization
and lack of personal accomplishment) in the three types of teachers, which was established by the absence of the
syndrome in this population. However, significant differences were found by ANOVA (P <0.05) in type of teaching relationship and the variables assessed by the Inventory. When comparing the groups, the teachers hired by the
hour were the highest scores in three dimensions, but there were no differences between full-time teachers and parttime.
We conclude that, although no evidence of the presence of burnout in general there is a tendency to present,
especially in the group of teachers hired by the hour, possibly because of its large time commitment and lack of job
security, among others, confirming results of other related studies. We recommend a rational allocation of teaching
assignments, including in the design of university policies and alternative activities for welfare and recreation to
improve their quality of work life.
The family Lauraceae is composed of 52 genera and over 3000 species are trees or shrubs with some morphological
characteristics such as: having leaves alternate, cimosas inflorescence, free stamens, and berry or drupe fruit type.
The use of the Lauraceae in folk medicine refers, among others, carminative, emanogogo and treating arthritis.
Within its biological activity and / or pharmacological include cytotoxic activity, activity against breast cancer,
anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antinociceptive and antitumoral.
The references show the importance of the family Lauraceae in the health field for many applications not only in
the context of ethnomedicine, but also supported the drug in different bioassays, that is an alternative scientific
support for the development of new pharmaceutical products.
Keywords: Lauraceae, Phytochemistry, biological activity and / or pharmacology, ethnomedicine.