Periodontal Disease in Immunodeficient Patients: Clinical Guidelines for Diagnosis and Management.
Authors: Morvarid Oveisi, Oriyah Barzilay, Ahmed A. Hanafi
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Primary immunodeficiency diseases are rare hereditary conditions that usually occur at a young age; however, secondary immunodeficiency is acquired due to disease, drug treatment and is increasing in frequency among the population. Although periodontal diseases related to these conditions are secondary to other life threatening manifestations, they are very common and easily detectable by the patient, patient guardians and periodontists. Periodontists have a major role in both helping to detect undiagnosed diseases, as well as improving the oral care of diagnosed patients, thus a thorough knowledge of these conditions, causes, local and systemic involvement, diagnostic tools and proper management is very important. This article summarizes selected primary and secondary immunodeficiency conditions such as neutropenia, leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD) and Chediak-Hegashi syndrome, and places schematic, diagnostic, and management steps that may help periodontists manage unexplained severe periodontal diseases related to immunodeficiency.