The new finds of Prague pence of ХІІІ – ХV century on the territory of Podillya
Authors: BAKALETS O. A.
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The author of the article tries to analyse about ten new founded Prague pence of ХІV – ХV centuries on the Podillya territory. He shows the role of Prague penny as the main face of the cash back European countries and Podillya. The sources of Podillya monetary history reflect the processes that occurred as a result of changes in political, social and economic structure due to reconquer Duchy of Lithuania in the Golden Horde in 1362–1363 of Kiev region, Chernigiv, Novgorod of Sivershchyna and Podillya, the foundation of Podilsk principality by the nephews of Lithuanian prince Olgerd – Princes Koriatovich in the second half of the fifteenth century. Exactly at that time the Ukrainian lands from the Middle of Pokuttya to Podniprovʼya got their historical name "Podillya". The development of production, the construction of new Podilsk walled cities in Medzhybizh, Sataniv, Smotrych, Kamyanets-Podilsk, Rov, Bratslav, Khmelnik, Vinnitsa, defended against Tatar raids "borderlands of society", contributed to the development of crafts, trade, and creating new money relations and its own coinage in Podilsk lands in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1363 – 1569.
Previous and modern treasures of coins on the territory of Podillya clearly demonstrate active involvement of Podillya market system closer trade contacts with the countries of Central and Western Europe, the emergence of the cash back edge of foreign silver coins. Among them the Prague silver money of 1300–1547, Hungarian silver denarius, coins of Red Rus (Galicia), Polish, Lithuanian, Moldovan half-peanuts, denarius, Khan Djanibek of the Golden Horde imitation dirham (1342–1357), shillings of Teutonic Order, the money of Livonian Order are dominated.
The new treasures learning and the finds of some Prague's money, their fractions, including local coinage will help the researchers to reproduce more fully the characteristics of Podillya money market at the study period, the proportion of the total mass of nominal monetary material.
The analyses of recent researches and publications. The given area is dedicated to the scientific exploration of modern Ukrainian numismatists: R. Savov [14,15] A. Pohorilets  M. Kotlyar  G. Kozubovskyy [7, 8, 9, 10, 11], R. Shust [18, 19] A. Bakalets [1, 2, 3] B. Orlik  G. Holysh  N. Dorofiyeva, Z. Komarynska  S. Malovanyy . However there are a lot unexplored in this subject.
The purpose of the proposed study is the analysis and introduction to scientific use the new numismatic material, found in Vinnytsia and Khmelnytsky regions in the second half of the XX – XXI centuries.
Thus, the new discoveries of silver coins of the Czech Republic, Poland, Lithuania, Hungary, the Livonian Order of the fourteenth century, Teutonic Knights XV, Moldova, the Koriatovich Podolsky Duchy at late fourteenth century and Western and long-term accumulation of coin hoards clearly illustrate the main denominations of Podillya money economy of XIII – XV centuries, the sources of money for their markets. The treasures and finds of some Prague money in Sataniv, Smotrych, Bar, the surrounding villages of Ivanivzi, Luka Barska, Rozhepy (the distance between them is about 5 – 7 km) show that over this area was held one of the Podilsk trade routes in XIV–XV centuries, the density of population in this region, the developing of trade and significant using the Prague penny and its fractions by the Podillya population.