Purpose. To study the effect of the feed factor on the functional state of the carp body (Cyprinus carpio L.) under the conditions of growing in a model recirculation system of complex purpose with the use of intensive technologies.
Methodology. The experimental part of the study was performed at the laboratory of the Scientific and Research Lab “Aquaculture Perspectives”, Scientific and Research Laboratory of “Physiological and Biochemical Studies named after S. Pentelyuk”, Scientific and Research Laboratory of Ecological and Chemical Analysis and Water Monitoring of the State Education Institution “Kherson State Agrarian and Economical University” and at the laboratory of the “Kherson Production and Experimental Hatchery of Ordinary Fish Breeding”. Carp growing was carried out in the model installation of tanks recirculation type with using intensive technologies, alternative energy sources, method of gas-discharge visualization. During the experiment following was performed: clinical examination of fish, control of growth rate and weight gain, survival rate, physiological state and morpho-functional parameters of blood in accordance with conventional methods.
Findings. The general functional state of the organism of the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. in ontogenesis was investigated against the background of activation of adaptive-compensatory mechanisms, metabolic processes under the influence of the food factor under rearing conditions in a model system for complex purposes in aquaculture. Positive results of analysis of morpho-functional, biochemical parameters of carp blood were obtained when feeding with a feed mixture from natural fodder and biologically active substances. The degree of influence of the fodder factor as a corrector of metabolic processes in the carp organism when growing the marketable mass has been studied.
Originality. The conducted analysis of gas-discharge visualization of static GDV-gram parameters of optoelectronic emission of young-of-the-year carp showed differences in functional activity in the organism of fish from the experimental group in relation to the control group, which was also substantiated and argumentative by the parameters of carp blood and development rate.
Practical value. The proposed method of feeding carp in the recirculation system contributes to the correction of metabolic processes in their body, which makes it possible to reduce the cost through the use of natural feed, the cultivation of which is introduced into the recirculation system, the formation of a mixture of our own production, using the GDV-method diagnostics of objects and energy-saving elements in technological map.
Purpose. Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), a fish species native to freshwaters of North America, is a promising object of aquaculture all over the world. This is evidenced by the fact that this species is currently actively cultivated in aquaculture of more than 50 countries worldwide, on all continents, with the exception of Antarctica and Australia, both for recreational fishing and as a table fish. If we consider the history of breeding and cultivation of the largemouth bass, we can note a tendency to a continuous expansion of the stages of cultivation and transition from polyculture to monoculture. For example, in the first half of the last century, fish farms in the United States raised mainly juveniles of largemouth bass for stocking to natural water bodies, but currently most farms use the full production cycle from fry to marketable fish. In addition, earlier largemouth bass was used in many countries mainly as an additional object of aquaculture (biomeliorator) to increase the production of common carp, but now, thanks to the development of recreational fishing, it is increasingly becoming the main object of aquaculture, which is facilitated by the intensification of cultivation methods. Nowadays, there are many methods of growing largemouth bass, from the simplest, extensive, when fish are raised on natural food supply, to most intensive using flow-through aquaculture systems and off-season spawning. On the territory of Ukraine, it may be effective to use pond aquaculture of largemouth bass, which begins from the production of larvae and fry at fish farms. This stage of fish farming will be discussed in this article.
Findings. This article contains brief information on method of natural spawning of largemouth bass, filling ponds with water, selection of broodstock and norms for their stocking to spawning ponds, spawning behavior of fish, peculiarities of caring for larvae and fry, sorting juveniles, as well as minimizing injuries during manipulations with fish.
Practical value. Information from this review can be used for development of a new method for production of largemouth bass larvae and fry at warm-water pond farms in Ukraine, taking into account climatic conditions and local specificities of aquaculture.
urpose. Tosubstantiate scientifically and improve the technology of producing table caviar from ovulated sterlet eggs, which ensures the preservation of natural biologically active compounds and the stability of quality parameters. To investigate table caviar for microbiological, toxicological and toxico-biological safety. To determine the prospect of using the data in the practice of caviar sturgeon breeding.
Methodology. Primary materials were obtained in the conditions of «Oasis Bisan» JSC. The results obtained were processed by organoleptic, biochemical, microbiological, toxicological, toxic-biological methods, as well as by the method of variation statistics using MS Excel with an emphasis on standard errors.
Findings. Application of the heat treatment mode (78°C) of ovulated sterlet eggs while reducing the total time of the technological process to 1.0 minute contributes to the preservation of the integrity of food product components. Sterlet eggs from recirculated aquaculture system differed from a similar product from fish from natural waters by a lower mineral content (by 1.2%), an increased content of dry matter (by 8.1%), protein (by 7.5%) and lipids (by 3.7%). This fact indicates a decrease in the water content of the product and the acquisition of optimal gastronomic qualities.
Sterlet caviar proteins were found to contain a full set of essential amino acids, the chemical score of which exceeded 100%; no limiting amino acids were found. Comparative analysis of sterlet caviar from recirculated aquaculture systems and from natural habitats showed the absence of significant differences in the amino acid composition, which demonstrated the biological value of the product.
The use of the mode of short-term high-temperature heat treatment allows ensuring sufficient safety of the food product. The absence of E. coli and yeast in caviar was found. Pb, Cd, As and Hg contents in sterlet caviar were significantly lower than the maximum permissible levels. The total value of hexachloran and isomers was 0,0027mg/kg; DDT and metabolites – 0,016 mg/kg, polychlorinated biphenyls – 0,017 mg/kg and corresponded to permissible limits. The absence of altered forms, growth inhibition or death of tetrachimens confirms the toxicological safety of the finished product. The shelf life of the finished product without preservative is 6 months at a storage temperature of minus 2°C – minus 4°C, which parametrically meets the requirements of TU U 10.2-37758242-002: 2018.
Originality. The technology of processing ovulated sterlet caviar has been scientifically substantiated and experimentally tested. New data on the comparison of the results of classical pasteurization and short-term high-temperature heat treatment of caviar are presented. For the first time, the amino acid composition of sterlet caviar was studied under conditions of recirculated aquaculture systems, and the analysis of grainy caviar for hexachloran and isomers, DDT and metabolites, and polychlorinated biphenyls was carried out. Information on the chemical composition of caviar in the process of technological processing was clarified and supplemented.
Practical value. The advantage of the improved technology of processing raw caviar over the classical method of pasteurization was determined. The expediency of using an alternative technology in order to save energy and preserve traditional organoleptic properties, nutritional value and safety of the finished product were experimentally confirmed. On the basis of the results of the studies carried out, the technical documentation of TU «Technological instruction for the production of granular sturgeon caviar» and «Working instruction for the selection of caviar» were developed and agreed in accordance with the established procedure with the bodies and institutions of the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance and the State Standard. The developed technology was tested in the development of pilot batches of food sterlet caviar, which made it possible at the «Oasis Bisan» enterprise to introduce a food safety management system and conduct a certification audit by the International certification body TUV SUD for compliance with the International standard ISO 22000: 2005. Commission, the «Oasis Bisan» enterprise received an EU registration number: a-UA-14-20-121-VIII-PP, in connection with which it has the right to export products (sturgeon caviar) to the countries of the European Union.
Purpose. To investigate peculiarities of feeding of paddlefish during the second year of life in polyculture with carp fish in ponds of Ukrainian Polissia.
Methodology. A North American zooplanktophage belonging to sturgeons, the paddlefish was reared in polyculture with carp, hybrids of silver and bighead carps, as well as grass carp in pond with areas of 1 hectare on natural food supply. Development of the natural food supply was stimulated by applying cattle manure into ponds at an amount of 1 ton/ha. The stocking density of age‒1 paddlefish with an average weight of 143 g was 150 ind./ha, The total stocking density of all polyculture objects was 520 ind./ha. The determination of the nutritional and growth characteristics of fish, the qualitative composition of forage aquatic organisms and their biomass was carried out using well‒known methods. The main physicochemical parameters of water quality were investigated during fish rearing using generally accepted recommendations in fish farming and hydrochemistry.
Findings. The environmental conditions of the pond mainly met the biological requirements for the studied aquaculture objects. A periodic decrease in dissolved oxygen concentration to 1.5‒2.0 mgO2/dm3 was observed, which could slow down fish growth. During sampling to determine the feeding habits of paddlefish, the zooplankton biomass in the pond varied within 1.11‒6.44 g/m3, with the predominance of Cladocera and Copepoda. At the end of the study period, age‒1+ paddlefish reached an average weight of 979.0 g with a fish production of 120.4 kg/ha and a survival rate of 82.0%. The total fish production for all polyculture objects was 502.3 kg/ha. The average digestive tract fullness index of paddlefish varied within 199.72‒459.0030/000. The diet of paddlefish was dominated by lower crustaceans with a predominance of Cladocera (65.28‒86.23%). The role of Copepoda in paddlefish nutrition increased at the end of the culture season (up to 32.76%). Rotifera and other forage aquatic organisms did not have a significant value in the paddlefish diet (up to 3.85%). A significant amount of detritus swallowed by fish was observed (13.43‒31.31% of the digestive tract content). A selectivity in the consumption of paddlefish of various groups of zooplankton organisms was noted with the selectivity index for Cladocera at the level of 1.23‒1.48.
Originality. New data were obtained on the feeding habits of paddlefish in Ukrainian Polissia.
Practical value. The study results are an integral part of the database for the development of improved technologies for pond fish farming in Ukraine.
Purpose. To provide a comparative analysis of fisheries and biological parameters of young-of-the-year wild carp-domestic carp hybrids obtained from males of different genetic origin by natural spawning method, with subsequent use in industrial hybridization.
Methodology. Cultivation was carried out in pond conditions of the Lviv Research Station of the Institute of Fisheries of NAAS. Material for the study were young-of-the-year wild carp-domestic carp hybrids obtained from age-8 and 9 males of Amur wild carp of different genesis. Stocking density of 4-day larvae in nursery ponds was 20 thousand ind./ha. Growth rate was evaluated by using absolute, relative, daily and specific growth rate according to I.I. Schmalhausen. Feeding of fish was carried out with ground grain, starting from the first decade of July. Statistical processing of the material was performed in Microsoft Excel 2016. Criteria for the analysis of parameters were their average value and arithmetic mean error (M ± m).
Findings. According to performed studies, young-of-the-year wild carp-domestic carp hybrids obtained from Amur wild carp males of different genesis in terms of dynamics of weight accumulation and linear growth, survival, fish productivity, hybrids obtained from cryo-males were not inferior to young-of-the-year wild carp-domestic carp obtained from local males. However, according to the main body-build indices, they had similar values but were slightly inferior.
Originality. For the first time in Ukraine, a comparative analysis of fisheries and biological parameters of young-of-the-year wild carp-domestic carp hybrids obtained from males of different genetic origin in terms of industrial hybridization was performed.
Practical value. The results of this work will provide a comprehensive assessment of fish and biological parameters of young-of-the-year wild carp-domestic carp hybrids obtained from Amur wild carp males of different genetic origin and justify their use in breeding work for further reproduction in breeding farms and to obtain industrial hybrids.
Purpose. The aim of the work was to assess the effectiveness and feasibility of using the prebiotic "Actigen" in the process of commercial cultivation of carp taking into account productive and economic indicators.
Methodology. The study was conducted in 2019, using three ponds, two of which were experimental and one control, which were stocked with age-1 scaly carp with an average weight of 55 - 56 g at a stocking density of 1000 specimens/ha. Carp of the experimental groups were fed during 90 days of the growing season with a feed with supplemented with the prebiotic "Actigen" at the amount of 0.025% (Experiment 1) and 0.05% (Experiment 2). Optimal conditions for carp keeping were provided during the study with the control of oxygen, temperature, hydro-chemical and hydro-biological regimes of the aquatic environment and analysis of the efficiency of cultivation at the end of the growing season according to generally accepted methods in aquaculture. Piscicultural and economic indicators of age-1+ carp cultivation were determined at the end of the growing season.
Findings. Conditions for growing carp in experimental and control ponds were satisfactory. No dependence of the hydro-chemical regime of experimental ponds on the composition of the diet was found. The average seasonal biomass of food organisms of zooplankton and zoobenthos during the growing season was 10.81 – 20.64 g/m3 and 0.47 – 0.73 g/m2, respectively, and served as an additional source of food for carp.
It was found that the average weight of age-1+ carp, which was fed with the feed with the addition of 0.025% and 0.05% of prebiotic supplements, was higher by 11.9% and 22.2%, respectively, fish productivity – by 12.1% and 23.1%. The feed conversion rate was lower by 9.5% and 19.1% relative to the control.
The cost of additionally obtained fish products when fish were fed with a feed supplemented with the prebiotic at the amount of 0.025% was 4290 UAH/ha, 0.05% - 8190 UAH/ ha. The contingent income, including costs for feeds and fish seeds using 0.025% and 0.05% prebiotic, was 20.9% and 33.6% higher, respectively, than in the control group.
Originality. The effect of prebiotic "Actigen" on productivity and economic indicators in the process of growing age-1+ carp was studied for the first time. The implementation of this task provided an opportunity to increase the fish productivity of ponds by feeding fish with an artificial feed of improved composition.
Practical value. The obtained results testify to the expediency and efficiency of using prebiotic "Actigen" in fish farming. Reducing the cost and obtaining additional gains in the cultivation of fish products is provided by improving the quality characteristics of feed.
Purpose. Qualitative study of fillets of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)fed with natural powder of water fern (Azollafiliculoides) and comparison with previous studies.
Methodology. The proximate composition of the samples of fish fillets was done: protein content through Kjeldahl method, lipid content was determined according to AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) official method.Sensory evaluations were done by panelists. Methods for determining water holding capacity, cooking losses and biochemical analysis were standard, accepted in the world scientific community.
Findings. Dissimilarities in the composition of proteins and fats were revealed. There was a significant difference in water holding capacity, cooking losses and biochemical analysis results. According to research, the powder of water fern is recommended for use in the feeding of carp, in order to improve the quality of its fillets.
Originality. In recent years, a significant amount of research has focused on the use of plants or their extracts in fish nutrition, due to the presence of antioxidants in them. Water fern powder is one of the cheapest dietary supplements, which can be used in aquaculture to reduced spending on cultivation, contemporaneously improving fish health. This is due to the fact that these aquatic plants are widespread in water bodies of most warm countries and contain many important antioxidants that can positively affect the quality of fish fillets.
Practical value. Based on the data obtained, a method for improving the quality of carp fillets has been developed. So, using water fern powder in its feeding, it is possible to improve the biochemical composition, increase taste, reduce losses during cooking, and also adjust the ability to retain water. Therefore, the proposed diet is also very useful for processing aquaculture products.
Purpose. Uzbekistan aquaculture has a huge deficit of balanced feed. In a case of feed production from local ingredients, the problem is the lack of stable source of animal protein. The purpose of this experiment was to find out how swan mussel Anodonta used as a feed additive for African catfish will affect fish growth.
Methodology. Minced Anodonta was prepared as follow: mussels were collected from the bottom of ponds after fish harvesting; the collected mussels were kept in the separate aquarium; every day several mussels were taken out, their shells were opened and muscle parts were separated the (mostly mussel leg); then the separated muscle were kept for disinfection in KMnO4 solution of low concentration during 20 min and then crushed to a minced state. Feed was given to African catfish according to a special scheme at the rate of 7% of the fish weight. The control group did not receive the minced mussels and fish were fed with carp feeds.The mixed feed in the experimental group #1 consisted of 50% carp feed and 50% minced mussel. In the experimental group #2, African catfish were fed with minced mussels only.
Findings. The experiment showed the clear advantage of feed containing 50% of minced clams and 50% of carp feed. The African catfish fed with this feed significantly overtook fish from the control group in weight because this feed turned out to be either the most balanced in composition or better absorbed by catfish. In the control group, the 100% mixed feed gave an increase of 83.8% in weight and 20.5% in length; in the experimental group #1, the feed (50% mixed feed : 50% minced mussel) gave an increase of 136% in weight and 31.1% in length; at the experiment #2 (100% minced mussel), the feed gave an increase of 95.5% and 20.1% in length.
Originality. For the first time the swan mussel was used as a source of animal protein for African catfish.This experiment was conducted for the first time, and it was also found for the first time that the addition of minced swan mussel to the feed of African catfish contributed to a significant weight gain compared to the conventional feed:52.5% more compared to conventional feed and 40.5% more compared to pure minced swan mussel.
Practical value. Aquaculturenow is in search of source of animal proteinin connection with growing global deficit of a high quality fishmeal for fish feed production. Use of bivalve mollusks Anodonta, which are also a pest in pond farms, is promising feed for obtaining physiologically determined weight gains.
Purpose. Forming a thematic bibliographic list of publications on the morphological, ecological, physiological and biochemical characteristics of the tench (Tinca tinca L.), its cultivation and the state of its stocks in natural water bodies.
Methodology. The complete and selective methods were applied in the process of the systematic search. The bibliographic core has been formed with the publications exclusively in Ukrainian and Russian from the fund of scientific library of the Institute of Fisheries NAAS of Ukraine.
Practical value. The list may be useful for scientists, practitioners, students, whose area of interests includes the study of physiological, biochemical, ecological and other characteristics of cyprinids, in particular tench, as well as the restoration of its stocks.