Purpose. To define the ichthyecological criteria for assessing the status of river catchments of the Pripyat HEР - to develop their matrices, as well as to study the limiting factors of influence on ecosystem functioning that is necessary to find ways for the rehabilitation of fish fauna of this important natural object of national significance.
Methodology. The quantitative and qualitative status of fish fauna of the Pripyat HEP was assessed based on the cameral processing of the material collected in expeditions, as well as interviewing recreational fishermen. We studied the hydrological regime of the Pripyat HEP, using the yearbooks of the hydrometeorological services of the Polissya region from 1922 to 2005. Processing the abovementioned data was performed using a mathematical program created by us in Delphi. The aquatic environment was considered as a “black box” with incoming and outgoing information, which was measured by 50 parameters according to a comprehensive environmental classification of water quality.
Findings. It was proved that the rehabilitation of the Pripyat HEP is urgently needed from the standpoint of hydroecology. Changes in the ecosystem of the Pripyat HEP were assessed using a spatial biomarker, a sharp deterioration in the habitat and conditions of fish reproduction were noted. A formalized functioning scheme of the Pripyat HEP is presented, from which it follows that its development was extremely irrational. A comparative analysis of the state of the ichthyocenosis of river ecosystems in the Styr-Horyn fish-restoration complex relative to non-transformed catchments was carried out.
Originality. A spatial biomarker of the surface water state was developed and used to assess the conditions for the reproduction of native fish fauna in the Styr and Horyn rivers in the Pripyat hydroelectric station. A comprehensive index of the ecosystem state of the studied catchment (Vec.) was introduced and calculated by the ratio of its actual parameters to their optimal characteristics, according to our formula.
Practical value. The main trends of the rehabilitation of fish fauna in the Western Polissya area of Pripyat HEP are formulated and the basic scheme of its implementation is presented. The effectiveness of using a spatial biomarker and a catchment approach has been demonstrated.
Purpose. To study reproductive characteristics of female freshwater shrimp M. nipponense (Dniester population) in natural and artificial conditions.
Methodology. Field studies were carried out from April to October 2016-2019 in the Kuchurgan and Dniester lagoons, fish ponds and lakes of the lower Dniester and Turunchuk rivers. Shrimp were caught in coastal areas with net and special traps using a bait (ground silverside). The studies were conducted in the field and laboratory conditions. For experimental work, the caught shrimp was transported to the aquarium department of aquatic biological resources and aquaculture of Odessa State Ecological University. For the cultivation and reproduction of shrimp, 0.3 m³ glass aquariums were used, combined in an experimental setup with a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) with a total working volume of 1.2 m³. During the experiment, the conditions were close to the environment, where shrimp were caught. During the biological analysis of the shrimp, following parameters were determined: sex, total length and body weight (stage and duration of embryogenesis). The survival of M. nipponense under various conditions was also recorded. Following modern instruments were used for the express analysis of hydrochemical parameters of the environment: ECOTEST -2000 T (О2; NO-2; NO-3; NH-4; CO2; phosphates, pH), Azha-101M thermooximeter (Т, оС; О2), pH meter-150 m); ATAGO-100 refractometer (salinity and water density). Saline solution, in special experiments, was produced in laboratory conditions by diluting seawater.
Findings. Fertilized shrimp eggs have an oval shape, and their average sizes varied within 0.58-0.66 mm (length) and 0.39-0.46 mm (width). It was found that the size of fertilized eggs in M. nipponense of the Dniester population differed in size in various natural waters. The largest sizes (0.66 ± 0.035 and 0.46 ± 0.014 mm) and an average volume of 0.073 mm3 were observed in shrimp eggs from the Kuchurgan estuary. These parameters significantly (P≥0.95) differed from shrimps from the Dniester estuary, which had the smallest sizes (0.58 ± 0.022 and 0.39 ± 0.011 mm) and average volume (0.046 mm3). Shrimp from ponds and lakes of the Dniester and Turunchuk had average size and egg volume, which, according to these parameters, did not significantly differ from those of individuals from the Kuchurgan and Dniester estuaries. An analysis of shrimp fertility of the Dniester population showed that the IRF and FRF increase in direct proportion to the increase in the size and weight of females that is natural for all poikilothermic animals. IRF in the linear size range of female M. nipponense from the Dniester population of 2.5-7.9 cm and weight of 2.2-7.3 g increases from 3441 ± 942 to 10241 ± 1323 eggs in one clutch. The duration of embryogenesis and survival of shrimp embryos with an increase in water temperature from 18 to 31 ° C is reduced from 42 to 20 days. The optimum is at a temperature of 27 ° C, which ensures the survival of 98% of the embryos. Shrimp M. nipponense can reproduce at a salinity from 0 to 9‰, but the optimum salinity is 5‰ which in the range of optimal temperatures ensures the survival of 98% of embryos with a minimum duration of embryogenesis.
Originality. The reproductive characteristics of female M. nipponense from the Dniester population were studied for the first time. It was shown that the fertilized shrimp eggs of the Dniester population differ in size in different areas of the lower reaches. The dependence of the initial (IRF) and final (FRF) realized fertility on the mass of shrimp was found. The duration of embryogenesis and the survival rate of embryos were studied depending on the temperature and water salinity. The optimal temperature and salinity parameters for embryogenesis of M. nipponense of the Dniester population have been established.
Practical value. The research results made it possible to give an objective characterization and assessment of the fertility of the introduced species M. nipponense in the conditions of the Lower Dniester basin and can be used to develop technology for its artificial reproduction.
Purpose. Purpose of the work is to create fish databases using rainbow trout data and basing on new methods of theoretical analysis of fish data and their ordering in hierarchical structures with elements represented as relation tables linked through a system with primary keys with specific codes.
Methodology. The methods of object-oriented system analysis, ER-diagram design, and the methods of computer databases construction were used in process of present work.
Findings. Some well-known fish databases (seafood, aquaculture samples) were reviewed and some of their peculiarities are analyzed from the point of view of professional construction of relational databases within modern electronic information systems. The ways of the construction of such databases for domestic use in connection with the Internet were proposed. A number of algorithm stages for fish database design was described on the example of the information on rainbow trout and locations of its occurrence (catches) in Ukraine; ER-diagram, logical diagram of such database with its elements that can be presented in tables are suggested as well. Such tables should be unmistakably interconnected through the key system, and this procedure is described in detail in the article, as well as the creation of specific key codes, their formation and use to form links between the tables. The implementation of described works can be considered as one of the first stages in the development of interactive map with information of the fish species distribution (and locations of their catches) in Ukraine.
Originality. Such important modern project as an interactive map with the information on the distribution of fish species (and locations of their catches) based on modern information and computer technologies using biological databases has not been implemented yet in Ukraine. The work described in this article is the first step in creating of such a map that will facilitate further intensive introduction of modern information technologies and the development of domestic fishery industry.
Practical value. Rainbow trout is an important object for fishery industry of the country; and development of interactive electronic map with the information on the spread of the rainbow trout and other fish species (and places of their catches) in Ukraine is an important step for the transformation of fishery industry in our country to the contemporary level of the world technologies and for the provision of food safety. Using of contemporary computer technologies suggested in the this article, would make this branch more effective in Ukraine and in the whole world.
Рurpose. To develop scientific bases for reproduction of European grayling populations by the Carpathian River basin in artificial and natural conditions.
Method ology. Fishery volumes were determined on the basis of indicators of development of the natural forage base of river systems. Actual weight gains in the younger age groups and estimated mortality rates. Natural mortality coefficients were calculated from the parameters of the Bertalanffy equation, which was determined on the basis of the actual size and age parameters of the grayling. Survival of seagrasses was determined on the basis of the calculated coefficient of natural mortality in the first year of life and the ratio of survival of different age groups, which for larvae and seagulls weighing 5 g was 3.7.
Findings. The analysis of the available data shows the fundamental possibility of introducing a viable European grayling youth to replenish the reproductive nucleus of the natural population, which in turn will create objective prerequisites for population growth and create prospects for viewing the conservation status.
The parameters of the Bertalanffy equation, calculated on the average size and age parameters of the grayling of the Transcarpathian rivers, were: K (year-1) - 0.297; L∞ (cm) - 36.9; t0 (year) - 0.168. natural mortality, differentiated by age, and, accordingly, annual mortality rates. On the basis of this, the indicators of instantaneous natural mortality, differentiated by age, and, accordingly, indicators of annual mortality were determined.
The potential accumulation of grayling ichthyomas can be determined on the basis of the total annual mortality and the actual weighting by size classes. The baseline stocking index can be used as a baseline weighted area (based on area). Yew, which is 418.6 copies. / ha of annuals.
The bioproductive potential of the rivers of the Carpathian region allows to increase fish productivity on the European grayling by an average of 8.6-21.2 kg / ha. For this purpose, during the four-year period, it is necessary to fish the Tisza River basin with a grayling of at least 5 g with a total amount of 620.5 thousand. Ex. per year. and the Prut River Basin - 122,000 copies. per year.
Originality. Methodical approaches for determining quantitative indicators of grayling activities are substantiated.
Practical value. The practical implementation of the obtained results will be carried out during the reproduction and cultivation of viable planting material, regulation of quantitative and qualitative indicators of fishing.
Purpose. To study peculiarities of the sterlet in the process of intensive rearing of their replacement and brood groups in floating cages installed in water bodies with natural temperature regime.
Methodology. The material for the study were age-3+ and age-5+-6+ sterlet reared at the industrial type fish farm “Oseter” LLC of Kyiv region located in the forest-steppe physical-geographical zone of Ukraine. The experimental groups of fish were reared in 24 m2 (4x6 m) cage chambers submerged in water by 2.5-3.0 m. Measurements of alive fish were performed in different seasons of 2019 using schemes recommended for measuring sturgeons. Twelve plastic features of the sterlet were studied, weights of individual fish and indexes of body built were determined. Fulton’s conditions indexes were calculated with the use of standard lengths (l) and total lengths (L). Studies of physicochemical parameters of water medium were performed using generally accepted fisheries and hydrochemical methods.
Findings. Individual patterns in exterior features of the sterlet of different ages were detected, where females exceeded males by mean values of absolute and relative fish body depths, thickness and girth. It was found that the mean values of the relative distance from the anal fin to the end of middle rays of the caudal fin were characterized by sufficient stability. It was noted that the gonad maturation stage should be taken into account for a comparative analysis of morphobiological parameters of sterlet females and males when performing studies within one fish generation in the same periods of the year. A complex of methods combined with morphological studies with ultrasonography and other modern techniques is recommended for early vital sex determination in sturgeons.
Originality. Some morphological peculiarities of brood groups of the sterlet, rearing of several generation of which was performed in the conditions of intensive aquaculture in a limited space of cages, were studied.
Practical value. The results of the studies can be interesting for the development of selective breeding work in sturgeon aquaculture and contribute to the development of methods for early vital determination of the sex in sturgeons.
Purpose. To analyze age and seasonal dynamics of the cytogenetic parameters in different age groups of Halych carp under conditions of industrial cultivation.
Methodology. Blood sampling for smear preparation was performed from the caudal vein. The smears were preserved in methyl alcohol and stained using the Romanowsky-Giemsa solution. Further analysis was performed under a Primo Star Zeiss microscope at 1000x magnification. The erythrocyte frequency from the micronucleus, single-nucleus lymphocytes from the micronucleus, dual-nucleus lymphocytes, and apoptosis were counted in the smears. The data obtained was measured in ppm (‰).
Findings. Erythrocytes with micronuclei in different age groups of the Halych carp ranged from up to 2.7 ‰ ± 0.4 - 4.0 ‰ ± 0.7. The number of lymphocytes with micronuclei was 2.0 ‰ ± 0.4 - 2.4 ‰ ± 0.2. Dual-nucleus lymphocytes in the Halych carp ranged from 2.0 ‰ ± 0.2 to 2.7 ‰ ± 0.3. As a result of cytogenetic analysis, a 11% decrease in the level of cells with apoptosis in age-3 Halych carp compared to young-of0the-year was detected.
After wintering, erythrocytes with micronuclei in age-1 and age-2 carp were recorded to be within 2.7 ‰ ± 0.5 - 3.1 ‰ ± 0.6. The incidence of lymphocytes with micronuclei in the Halych carp decreases, while this parameter in age-2 fish decreased by 8% and amounted to 2.4 ‰ ± 0.2.
Dual-nucleus lymphocytes in the Halych carp after wintering ranged from 2.9 ‰ ± 0.1 to 3.3 ‰ ± 0.2. As a result of a comparative analysis of cytogenetic parameters of age-1 and age-2 carp, a significant difference in the number of lymphocytes with dual nuclei was found (P ‹0.01; ts = 3.57). The results of the studies show that an increase in this parameter was triggered by rapid growth of fish seeds in pond conditions.
Originality. For the first time, the variability of the cytogenetic apparatus of different age groups of the Halych carp at different stages of the technological process in industrial cultivation was analyzed.
Practical value. The results obtained can be used for further breeding work with the Halych carp in the region.
Purpose. To investigate the efficiency of the supplementation of the basic diet of age-3 carp with the prebiotic "Actigen" in pond conditions. To provide control over the aquatic environment conditions, to determine the effect of the tested supplement on the fish productivity of the experimental ponds and feed costs for fish cultivation.
Methodology. Experimental studies were conducted at the fish farm “Karpatskiy Vodograi” LLC of the Pustomyty district of Lviv region under the conditions of similar ponds with one source of water supply. Ponds were stocked with scaly carp yearlings with an average weight of 55 - 58 g, at a stocking density of 1000 fish/ha. The control group of fish was fed with a balanced compound feed, while three experimental groups were supplemented with 0.025% “Actigen” by granulation using the granulation method (Experiment 1); 0.05% (Experiment 2) and 0.075% (Experiment 3). The duration of the study was 60 days. Hydrochemical, hydrobiological and oxygen regimes of the aquatic environment were monitored during the growing season. Hydrochemical and hydrobiological studies were conducted according to the methods described by Alyokin O. A, Zhadin V. I. and Krazhan S. A.
Findings. Satisfactory conditions for carp cultivation were ensured during the growing season. The main parameters of the chemical composition of pond water were in accordance with the fishery standards, there were no peculiarities of changes in these parameters depending on the composition of fish diet. The dissolved oxygen concentration in water ranged from 3.8 to 8.8 mg/dm3. Quantitative development of zooplankton during the growing season was characterized by average parameters. The total number of zooplankton in the ponds ranged from 26.0 to 426.0 thousand ind./m3, and the biomass - from 2.20 to 11.19 g/m3.
It was found that the use of the prebiotic Aktiben prebiotic for feeding age-2 carp at the rate of 0.05%, 0.025% and 0.075% had a positive effect on the fish productivity in the experimental ponds: the average fish weight exceeded the values of the control group by 6.3%, 21.3% and 1.3%, respectively. fish productivity increased by 10.0%, 31.0% and 1.2%. In the same time, the feed costs for carp cultivation decreased by 1.1 (0.025% of the supplement) and 1.3 times (0.05% of the supplement) relative to control.
Originality. For the first time, the effect of the prebiotic action of "Actigen" was investigated, when it was introduced into the basic diet of age-2 carp on productive indices and feed costs.
Practical value. The obtained results indicate the feasibility of using Actigen in aquaculture and the prospect of further studies of its effect on the physiological and biochemical parameters of fish body.
Purpose. The purpose of the study was to investigate the feasibility and efficiency of the use of milk thistle in the process of commercial cultivation of the common carp in terms of productive and economic indicators.
Methodology. The study was conducted in two experimental and control ponds, which were stocked with carp yearlings at a density of 1000 ind./ha. The carp of the first experimental group during the growing season were additionally fed with a diet containing 1% of milk thistle, while the second experimental group – 5%. During the work, optimal conditions of carp cultivation were maintained. The dissolved oxygen, temperature hydro-chemical and hydro-biological regimes of the aquatic environment were monitored and the efficiency of cultivation at the end of the growing season was analyzed by conventional methods.
Findings. In general, the conditions of fish cultivation in the experimental and control ponds were satisfactory. No relationship was observed between the hydro-chemical regime of the experimental ponds and the diet composition. The average seasonal biomass of feed organisms of zooplankton and zoobenthos during the growing season were 4.22 – 5.11 g/m3 and 1.37 – 1.62 g/m2 respectively, and equally contributed to the process of carp cultivation both in experimental variants and in the control.
It was found that the average weight of carps fed with diets contained 1% and 5% of ground milk thistle was higher by 7.3% and 5.6%, respectively, fish productivity – by 9.8% and 7.2%. At the same time feed costs per kilogram of production decreased by 5.9% and 8.8% compared to the control.
The cost of additionally obtained fishery products when supplementing the diet with 1% of milk thistle amounted to 11849 UAH/ha, 5% – 10217 UAH/ha. The attributable profit, including costs of feed and fish seeds, when using 1% of milk thistle was 13.1% higher than in the control, 5% – 0.7% higher in the control group.
Scientific novelty. According to a wide range of biologically active properties of milk thistle, the effect of this additive on the productive and economic indicators in the process of age-2 carp has been studied for the first time. The implementation of this practice provided an opportunity to increase fish productivity by feeding fish with artificial feeds of improved composition.
Practical value. Reducing the cost and obtaining additional weight gains during the cultivation of aquaculture products can be ensured by improving the quality characteristics of fish feeds, and, accordingly, the physiological parameters of age-2 carp organism.
Purpose. Forming a thematic bibliographic list of publications on the development and application of classical and modern research methods in ichthyopathology and ichthyoparasitology.
Methodology. Complete and selective methods were applied in the process of the systematic search. The bibliographic core has been formed with exclusively in Ukrainian and Russian language scientific publications from the fund of scientific library of the Institute of Fisheries NAAS of Ukraine.
Findings. A thematic list of publications with a total quantity of 86 sources covering a time interval from 1950 to 2016 and concerning the methods of diagnoatics, prevention and treatment of fish diseases of various etiologies has been formed. The literary sources are arranged in alphabetical order by author or title, and described according to DSTU 8302:2015 “Information and documentation. Bibliographic reference. General principles and rules of composition”, with the amendments (code UKND 01.140.40), as well as in accordance with the requirements of APA style — international standard of references.
Practical value. The list may be useful for scientists, practitioners, students, whose area of interests covers the questions of ichthyopathology, parasitology, and fish farming.