Purpose. To investigate of the seasonal dynamics of morphological and physiological parameters of scaly carp juveniles reared under the conditions of the Taromske fish farm in the Dnipropetrovsk region.
Methodology. Morphological and physiological studies of the young-of-the-year and yearlings of the scaly carp were carried out according to conventional methods. Morphological and physiological parameters of carp young-of-the-year were determined at the end of the growing season; yearlings – during unloading of the wintering pond.
Findings. The presented data shows morphological parameters, indices of organs, condition factor and hematological parameters of the young-of-the-year and yearlings of the scaly carp reared in the Taromske fish farm. The blood condition of carp yearlings was characterized by a high number of red blood cells, increased color index, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate, a decrease in lymphocytes with an increase in the proportion of neutrophils in the leukocyte formula and an increase in the number of monocytes. Changes in the hematological profile parameters of scaly carp juveniles indicate the presence of certain changes in blood parameters after wintering. The lowest indices of all organs were observed in fish caught in the spring, which is a consequence of body depletion after wintering. The reductions in the Fulton and Clark condition factors can be caused by the effect of stress on the physiological state of the fish body after the wintering period. The morphological and physiological parameters of the scaly carp indicated a sufficient degree of the preparation of fish juveniles for wintering that ensured a high survival rate.
Originality. The indices of internal organs and hematological profile of this year and yearlings of scaly carp grown in the fishery zone of the Northern Steppe by extensive technology were determined. The investigated morpho-physiological parameters depended on seasonal factors and characterized the physiological state of carp juveniles.
Practical significance. The obtained results can be used for additional assessment of the quality and general condition of carp seeds.
Purpose. To analyze professional literature and summarize the information on the cultivation of the representatives of three nematode (Nematoda) genera. To highlight the optimal biotechnology of the cultivation of banana nematode (Panagrellus redivivus), vinegar eelworm (Turbatrix aceti) and rhabditis (Rhabditis). To review the biological characteristics of these species along with the possibilities for their use as food objects in aquaculture.
Results. This work contains brief information on the biology and cultivation features of the above-mentioned worms. It presents the most cost-effective and simple mass production biotechnology of the cultivation of banana and vinegar nematodes and rhabditis. It can be used under different conditions due to its simplicity and cost-effectiveness.
The data regarding the use of nematodes in feeding fish juveniles in general and ornamental fish culture in particular are presented. The chemical composition and nutritional value of these worms, as well as their behavior in aquariums are described.
Practical significance. The summarized information will be useful for researchers who are exploring the ways to optimize fish feeding as well as for aquarists. The presented technology of cultivation of banana and vinegar nematodes and rhabditis can be used by a broad range of stakeholders.
Purpose. The purpose of the work was to demonstrate the applications of methods of database construction on the example of information about rainbow trout and viral infections affecting it. In process of such databases construction for electronic information systems it is necessary to find the ways of biological data preparation for each of solved tasks, than to make an adequate processing of these input data. Further step is the use of the methods of object-oriented system analysis for the aforementioned database construction in optimal way.
Methodology. The methods of object-oriented system analysis, ER-diagram design, and the methods of computer databases construction were used in process of present work fulfillment.
Findings. At the initial stage of the work some fish databases known in the world were observed. The peculiarities of biological objects (fishes) that have to be taken into account for this task fulfillment were analyzed. Further the approach of object-oriented analysis for constructing of computer databases in optimal manner was suggested. The first logical steps of algorithm for construction of databases with relative information about fish were described as well the practical recommendations for the development of databases with information concerning domestic biological organisms (on example of rainbow trout, its viral infection) for electronic information systems were done.
Originality. No large-scale implementation of contemporary information-computer technologies in Ukraine was done yet. The obtained results would be contributed to further intensive implementation of contemporary information technologies for the development of domestic fishery industry.
Practical value. Rainbow trout is important specie for fishery economy; its studying as well as viral infections affecting it are of great value for food safety. Information computer technologies application suggested in the work would make this branch of economy more effective in Ukraine and in the whole world.
Purpose. To investigate the genetic structure of the brood stock of the sterlet formed in the conditions of floating cages of an industrial type farm.
Methodology. Artificial reproduction and rearing of the sterlet were conducted with the use of industrial aquaculture technologies. The analysis of the polymorphism of protein substances was performed with the use of electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel. As molecular-genetic markers for the assessment of the genetic structure of age-4-6 fish (n=30), we used the distribution of allele and genotypic frequencies by loci coding a number of animal blood proteins and enzymes: transferrin (TF), post-transferrin (PTF), albumin (ALB). Statistical processing of the obtained data was performed with the use of traditional methods.
Findings. It was found that the genetic structure of the brood sterlet group with the body weight of 1.0-2.3 kg (1.68±0.07 kg, Сv=22.3%) was characterized by a significant level of heterozygosity (66.7%). From examined genetic-biochemical systems, the most informative for the detection of inter-group differences by genetic structures were the TF and ALB systems. The obtained data give an opportunity to suppose that the polymorphism assessment by transferrin and albumin loci can contribute to objective control of the inbreeding degree of sterlet brood stocks in industrial aquaculture methods. Attention is drawn to the need for comprehensive genetic studies in the formation of sturgeon breeding stocks in industrial fish farming.
Originality. We studied the genetic structure of the sterlet in the case of a technological variant of the formation and exploitation of sturgeon breeding stocks that is not traditional for aquaculture of Ukraine.
Practical value. The research results are of interest for monitoring and improving the condition of the breeding resources of sturgeons in aquaculture of Ukraine.
Purpose. Study of the effects of “Aller Aqua” and “Aquafeed Fischfutter” feeds on functional growth status, hematological and productive parameters of rainbow trout, from fry to commercial product.
Methodology. The study was carried out according to the commonly accepted methods in fish culture. Samples of blood were taken from the heart using a syringe and an injection needle, which was injected from the abdominal wall along the sagittal line between the pectoral fins.
Blood samples were analyzed according to the methods obtained by V.Vlyzlo and I.Kondrakhin [1,2].
Statistical processing of study materials was carried out using generally accepted methods of variation statistics with an estimate of means (M), errors (m), and calculations of the probability of differences using Student’s methods in Microsoft Excel.
Findings. The scientific and production experiment was conducted at the private enterprise "Western fish company" of Pustomyty district, Lviv region. The basis of the study was the task of optimizing the normalized feeding of rainbow trout according to the scheme, which provided for a comparative assessment of the effect of the above-mentioned granulated feed mixtures, as well as on the morphological and biochemical components of blood, an assessment of the dynamics of changes in the leukocyte formula, which gives a reason to take into account the state the hematopoietic organs and the immune system as a whole .
The picture of trout blood is a very distinct indicator of changes in the body, the physiological parameters of blood in trout can indicate the quality of fish products due to the nutritional conditions that need to be taken into account in the technological process of fish growing, in particular, trout. The main task of table trout culture is to grow fish in the best possible time and with minimal cost. One of the main factors influencing the intensity of fish growth is maintaining optimal conditions of cultivation and fully balanced nutrition. This approach is reflected in the scientific and practical publications on the effectiveness of the comparative assessment of “Aller Aqua” and “Aquafeed Fischfutter” for feeding rainbow trout.
According to the results of the study, the proposed types of feed were found to affect the studied parameters in different ways. Thus, the best positive results were obtained in the assessment of both the morphological and biochemical components of the blood when feeding fish with “Aller Aqua” granulated feed. It should also be emphasized that, despite some higher cost of this feed, the economic efficiency compared to the “Aquafeed Fischfutter” feed is higher.
Originality. A comparative study of the growth and development of rainbow trout, as well as its table value, was carried out under the conditions of using “Aller Aqua” granular feeds and “Aquafeed Fischfutter”.
Practical value. The main task of table trout culture is to grow fish in the best possible time and with minimal costs. One of the main factors influencing the intensity of fish growth is maintaining optimal conditions of cultivation and fully balanced nutrition. This approach is reflected in the materials of the scientific and practical publication on the effectiveness of the comparative assessment of “Aller Aqua” and “Aquafeed Fischfutter” for feeding rainbow trout. The efficient use of feed mixtures will allow obtaining high qualitative table products in a short time.
Purpose. To establish the nature of changes in physiological and biochemical parameters of fish, the qualitative and quantitative composition of their parasitocenoses, depending on the degree of the pollution of water bodies.
Methodology. The paper contains the results of the determination of hydrochemical composition of water from the lakes of Kyiv, the structure of their food supply (zoobenthos). As a marker of morpho-physiological features of the Prussian carp, rudd and roach, their liver and spleen indices were used. The content of glucose, cortisol and thyroid hormones was determined in fish blood plasma. The collection and processing of ichthyological material was performed in accordance with generally accepted methods. The taxonomic identification of parasites was carried out according to the appropriate identification keys.
Findings. The work presents some hydrochemical characteristics of the lakes under study, the development of the natural food supply for fish - zoobenthic organisms, changes in the physiological and biochemical parameters of some representatives of cyprinids in the lakes of Kyiv, which are subjected to different degrees of human impact. First of all, the indices of internal organs and a number of biochemical parameters of fish blood plasma were studied.
Parasitocenoses were specific for each lake. Their smallest number was in the lake Luhove, which was characterized by a significant human impact. The lake Babyne, which was taken as conditional control, had some fish parasites, which were not found in other lakes. The rudd from the lake Kyrylivske invaded with parasites had a 13% higher spleen index (r = 0.98). Also, the infected fish from the Kyrylivske and Luhove lakes had a 2.2-fold higher content of triiodothyronine (T3) in the blood plasma (r = 0.82 and r = 0.75, respectively) compared with fish from the lake Babyne.
The spleen index of the roach from the lake Kyrylivske is 16% more (r = -0.83) compared to this species from the lake Babyne. The roach from the lake Kyrylivske had a 4.7 times smaller number of cortisol in the blood (r = -0.83) and 4 times lower T3 level (r = -0.71) compared to fish from the lake Babyne. The Prussian carp from the Kyrylivske and Luhove lakes had spleen indices were lower by 44 and 37%, and the glucose content was 3.6 and 2.7 times lower in comparison with fish from the lake Babyne. In addition, the Prussian carp from lake Luhove had a lower content of cortisol and T3 by 1.7 and 1.5 times, respectively, compared with fish from the lake Babyne. It can be assumed that the studied fish species have different sensitivity to the cumulative or individual effects of anthropogenic stress and parasites.
Originality. For the first time, multilevel markers (morphophysiological, biochemical and parasitological) were used to establish the response of fish to the complex human impact in the conditions of water bodies in urbanized territories.
Practical Value. The obtained data are necessary to determine the patterns of adaptive reactions of economically valuable cyprinids, their parasites and forage objects under the action of adverse conditions of urbanization. The biochemical parameters of fish that can be used to assess the quality of water in water bodies were also studied.
Purpose. To investigate the effect of the supplementation of the basic diet of age-2 carp with different amounts of milk thistle (Silybum marianum) seeds on the state of T- and B-cell immunity and indicators of the natural resistance of their organism.
Methodology. The experimental part of the work was performed at the Lviv Research Station of the Institute of Fisheries NAAS. The study was conducted using three groups of age-2 Lubin scaly carp, which were reared under conditions of analogue ponds for 60 days of the culture season. The material for the study was fish blood, which was sampled at the end of the experiment. The numbers of T- and B-lymphocytes and their functional activity in the heparin-stabilized blood were determined using the rosette test. Phagocytosis parameters of granulocytes were evaluated by phagocytic activity (FA), phagocytic number (FN) and phagocytic index (FI). Lysozyme activity of serum (LAS) was determined by the response to the microbic test culture of Micrococcus lysodeikticus using the photonephelometric method. When determining the bactericidal activity of blood serum, Aeromonas hydrophila was used as a test microbe.
Findings. The supplementation of the diet of age-2 carp with milk thistle seeds at an amount of 5% resulted in a decrease in the number of T-lymphocytes (common, active and theophylline-resistant) and caused immunosuppressive effects on their functional activity due to the redistribution of the receptor apparatus of immunocompetent cells. In particular, an increase in the number of functionally inactive T-lymphocytes and reduction of the proportion of cells with medium and high density of receptors were observed. At the same time, when using this plant supplement at an amount of 1% in the blood of carp, a tendency to an increase in the number of these populations of T-lymphocytes and an increase in their functional activity were observed. At the same time, carp of both experimental groups, compared to the control, had the number of high-grade B-lymphocytes increased (p <0.05). These data indicate the dose-dependent effect of the milk thistle supplement on the state of the T- and B-cell system of the specific protection of the fish body.
The stimulatory effect of the studied supplement on the activity of the cellular and humoral components of age-2 carp resistance was found. This was evidenced by higher bactericidal, lysozyme and phagocytic activities in the blood of experimental groups compared to the control. This effect was expressed to a greater extent in carp, the basic diet of which was supplemented with 1% of milk thistle.
Originality. For the first time, the effect of milk thistle on the activity of T- and B-cell immunity and non-specific resistance of the body of age-2 carp have been investigated.
Practical value. Supplementation of the carp feeds with milk thistle in the process of commercial carp rearing allows increasing the natural resistance of their organism.
Purpose. Forming a thematic bibliographic list of publications regarding the use of classical and the development of new methods for studying the hydrochemical parameters of natural and artificial water bodies as well as the determination of water quality.
Methods. The complete and selective methods were applied in the process of the systematic search. The bibliographic core has been formed with the publications exclusively in Ukrainian and Russian languages from the fund of the scientific library of the Institute of Fisheries NAAS of Ukraine.
Results. The thematic list of publications consists of a total quantity of 78 sources covering the time interval from 1967 to 2017 and devoted to research methods used in hydrochemistry, hydroecology, eco- and ichthyotoxicology, and biomonitoring of water quality. The literary sources are arranged in alphabetical order by author or title, and described according to DSTU 8302:2015 “Information and documentation. Bibliographic reference. General principles and rules of composition”, with the amendments (code UKND 01.140.40), as well as in accordance with the requirements of APA style — international standard of references.
Practical value. The list may be useful for scientists, practitioners, students, whose area of interests includes water quality analysis, the study of water chemical composition, bioindication and bioassay problems.