Purpose. To conduct histomorphological analysis of the Prussian carp eggs under the conditions of Zaporizhzhia (Dnipro) reservoir.
Methods. The research was carried out at two observation stations located in the Samara Bay and the lower part of the Zaporizhzhia (Dnipro) Reservoir. The catches were carried out by standard gill nets with 30-120 mm mesh sizes. The object of the study was Prussian carp. The biological analysis of fish was carried out in accordance with the classical methods in ichthyology. For studying the fertility of fish, ovaries from females were taken at the stage IV of maturity. The stage of gonad maturity was determined visually. Individual absolute fertility was determined by the weighting method. To study the reproductive potential and features of fish reproduction, ovaries were taken from females at different stages of maturity. Samples were preserved in Bouin solution and further processed according to generally accepted histological methods. For the preparation of sections, a "Thermo scientific microm HM 325" microtome was used. The sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and by Mallory method. Images of preparations were made using a "Sciencelab T500 5.17M" digital camera, connected to a "MICromed XS-2610" microscope. During the description of the periods and phases of growth and development of gonads, stages of ovarian maturity, we used standard ichthyological definitions and terms. Statistical processing was carried out using the STATISTICA 6.0 software.
Findings. The structure of the oocytes of Prussian carp is similar to that of common carp: they do not have a fatty drop, there is a wide radially-shaped membrane and a micropyle. The Prussian carp is characterized by asynchronous trophoplasmic growth of oocytes and intermittent spawning. It has been determined that if the spawning is intermittent, the first portion of eggs contained about 60% of all eggs, and the second and subsequent portions the remaining 40%. The absolute fertility of the Prussian carp ranged from 10.51 to 189.95 thousand eggs. The average fertility index in all age groups was 80.28 ± 16.55 thousand eggs. In spawning population, the proportion of females was 55%, males – 45%. The yield to the fishery from eggs was 0.005%.
Scientific novelty. For the first time histomorphological analysis of Prussian carps under the conditions of Zaporizhzhia (Dnipro) reservoir was conducted.
Practical significance. The study of fish gonads has a significant applied importance for resolving the issues of commercial fishery and ecological monitoring.
Objective. Determination of species richness, species diversity and distribution of fishes in the Uday River within the National Nature Park “Pyryatynskiy” as well as determination of the prioritization in providing the special protection regime for some water areas.
Methodology. The object of study were small-sized fish populations of the Uday River. Sampling was carried out with the framework of monitoring works in association with scientific department of National Nature Park in July 2014-2017. The study was performed in Pyriatynsky district, Poltava region, along the Uday River channel on the territory of the National Nature Park. Monitoring catches were conducted at depths up to 2 m by a beach seine of 6 m in length, mesh size of 5 mm. Sample processing was carried out in accordance with generally accepted methods.
Findings. 19 species of fish belonging to 6 families were found on National Nature Park "Pyryatynsky" territory in the catches of 2014-2017. The largest species richness was found on a station near the village Kaybalovka (14 species). Almost the same number of fish species were observed at all stations. According to the calculated species diversity indices, the highest species diversity index was determined for the station Kaybalivka. Also we calculated the Jaccard similarity coefficient. The most unique water area, according to the calculations, was the area near the station Kaybalivka. A special protection regime should be assigned to this particular water area.
Originality. Any information on fish species diversity in some water areas of the Uday River is absent in the literature, but by using information about changes in species diversity it is possible to draw conclusions about the proper state of the protection of aquatic ecosystems at a specific time. Therefore, the species diversity and distribution of the Uday River has been calculated, and the priority has been given to provide a special regime for the protection of the water area near the village Kaybalivka.
Practical value. The obtained data have been used in the development of plans for the conservation of the biological diversity of the national park, and in the preparation of the management plan of the Emerald Network Europe Project UA0000077.
Purpose. To analyze a selection of professional literature and summarize the information on the vermiculture of the Red Californian earthworm (Eisenia foetida andrei). To present the achievements of modern biotechnology of this species. To consider the features of different cultivation methods, as well as the possibilities and prospects of its use as a food item in aquaculture.
Results. This work contains brief information on the biology and artificial selection of this species of lower invertebrates, its use in fish farming, as well as in other branches of the national economy. Currently, the market presents several hybrids of this species, adapted to local climatic conditions. This is the reason to consider the features of the production characteristics of hybrids of the Red Californian earth worm from different countries.
The article provides recommendations on the specificity of procurement of the breeding culture, optimal methods of further cultivation depending on the needs of the farms, the main requirements for the substrate and feed, as well as methods for assessing the quality of the obtained biomass. Data on the amino acid composition of flour made of the Red Californian earthworm are given, its fodder value in comparison with traditional feeds for fish, and the specifics of feeding various species of fish. The work presents a method for preparation of starter feed for carp fish using technology developed by Yevtushenko M. Yu.
An overview of scientific studies has revealed that the Red Californian earthworm is optimally used not only as a valuable high protein feed for multi-aged fish groups, but also for the production of organic fertilizers – biocompost. The latter was widespread not only in crop production, but also in the recultivation of different soils.
Practical significance. The summarized information will be useful for researchers who are exploring ways to optimize fish feeding. The presented technology of cultivating red Californian earthworms is most palatable for fish farms of different types of aquaculture. Obtaining biocompost as a valuable by-product of vermiculture provides an opportunity for their integrated development and obtaining additional profit
Purpose. To carry out the analysis of exterior and reproductive indexes of the brood common carp of the commercial farm PJSC “Khmelnytskrybhosp”.
Methodology. Methods generally accepted in fish selective breeding and farming have been used for the scientific works.
Findings. Pond fish farming, as the traditional form of fisheries, is one of the main sources of table fish products, the task of which is the rearing and cultivation of valuable fish breeds in ponds. Successful fish farming development is possible only with the use of complex intensification of production. One of the main components of intensification in fish farming is the well-established selection and breeding work aimed at qualitative improvement of breeding facilities, namely: the selection of new breeds and the creation of highly productive breeding stocks of fish and their rational use. The results of production of commodity fish depend on the provision of the fish farm with fish seeds and their quality.
Evaluation of the exterior and reproductive indexes of the commercial stock of brood Antonino-Zozulenetskiy common carps at the PJSC “Khmelnytskrybhosp” has been carried out for purpose of the organization of selective breeding works for improving of the growth rate, exterior, survivability and fecundity of cultured fish.
Originality. This analysis will be used as a parameter of the value of Antonino-Zozulenetskiy common carp in their commercial stocks of fish farms of the PJSC “Khmelnytskrybhosp” for forming selection nests and carrying out of the selective breeding works at these farms.
Practical value. The results of the work will contribute to the selection and forming of the brood stocks of Ukrainian common carp strains, which are characterized by high growth rates, exterior, typical appearance, survivability and fecundity.
Purpose. To perform a comparative analysis of the effect of saponite flour and analcime added to the basic diet of age-2 carp on physiological-biochemical parameters of fish organism.
Methodology. Aquaculture, ichtyological, and statistical methods were used for the study. The object of the study were age-2 carp. The weight content of protein was determined by Kjeldahl method, the fat content – by S.V. Rushkovskiy method in a Soxhlets extraction apparatus. Quantitative determination of metal concentrations in pond fish tissues were determined by direct absorption of the solution into propane-butane-air flame with the aid of atomic absorption spectrophotometer S-115-M1 in the laboratory of the Institute of Fisheries.
Findings. Studies on the determination of meat nutritional value and heavy metal concentrations in age-2 carp muscles have been performed. Addition of 3% saponite flour and analcime to carp diet during the entire rearing period resulted in an increase in age-2 carp average weight by 12.1% and 9.7%, fish productivity – by 11.9% and 9.9% compared to the control. Feeding of fish with a feed mixture supplemented with analcime contributed to an increase in protein content in carp muscles by 7.5% and fat – by 22.5%. At the same time, supplementation of the diet with saponite flour resulted in an increase in fat content by 16%. Feeding of fish with saponite flour and analcime resulted in a decrease in the contents of lead in fish muscles by 77.7% and 78.7%, cadmium – by 1.3 and 2.4 times compared to the control.
Originality. Minerals of volcanic origin, saponite flour and analcime, were added to age-2 carp diet for the first time. Their effect of productive parameters, food value of fish meat and its chemical composition were determined taking into account sorption and ion exchange properties.
Practical value. The results of the work are the basis for planning rational feeding of age-2 carp and increasing the productivity of ponds.
Purpose. To determine major parameters of the economic efficiency of the artificial production of ovulated sterlet eggs at non-traditional terms with the use of brood fish reared in the conditions of floating cages.
Methodology. The calculations were conducted according to the methods generally accepted in economics. For the economic analysis, we used actual numbers of business activities at the industrial aquaculture of Ukraine, in particular, SRP “Osetr” LLC (Kyiv region) during the period of 2016-2017. The study was conducted using a fish farm producing 500 kg of ovulated sterlet eggs as an example. The structure of the analyzed production costs with the assessment of enterprise profitability supposes a full cycle of fish culture processes on rearing and exploiting of brood sterlet with the combined use of modern industrial aquaculture methods.
Findings. The highest (more than 50%) share in the structure of production costs of the investigated sturgeon farm is labor compensation and costs of the purchase of high quality combined sturgeon feeds. The payoff period of a sturgeon farm producing 500 kg of ovulated sterlet eggs with the rearing of brood fish in the conditions of floating cages in a water body with natural temperature regime and artificial production of mature eggs and sperm with the use of recirculating aquaculture system was found to be no less than 6-7 years. The profitability level of fish farms of this type can exceed 40%. The ways of increasing the profitability of sturgeon farms of industrial type have been determined.
Originality. The parameters of economic efficiency of the technology of rearing brood fish and artificial production of mature eggs and sperm with the use of non-traditional methods of sturgeon rearing in Ukraine have been analyzed for the first time.
Practical value. The results of the study are of interest for the development of industrial aquaculture in Ukraine and assessment of performance indicators of caviar production in intensive sturgeon culture.
Purpose. Forming a thematic bibliographic list of publications on studies of low-temperature preservation of sexual cells of various fish families and species and creating gene banks in order to preserve the genetic diversity of endangered fish species populations.
Methods. Complete and selective methods were applied in the process of the systematic search. The bibliographic core have been formed with the publications exclusively in Ukrainian and Russian from the fund of scientific library of the Institute of Fisheries NAAS of Ukraine.
Findings. There was composed a thematic list of publications with a total quantity of 150 sources covering a time interval from 1979 to 2017, and including the questions on the history of the development and study of the current state of cryopreservation of fish sexual cells, its biological preconditions, methods and ways of their improvement, problems of the implementation of cryobiology achievements in fish farming. In addition, the list includes publications related to the creation and use of cryobanks as a way of preserving the fish gene pool. The literary sources are arranged in alphabetical order by author or title, and described according to DSTU 8302:2015 “Information and documentation. Bibliographic reference. General principles and rules of composition”, with the amendments (code UKND 01.140.40), as well as in accordance with the requirements of APA style — international standard of references.
Practical value. The list may be useful for scientists, practitioners, students, whose area of interests covers the questions of using of cryo-technologies to reserve the genetic diversity of endangered fish species and increase the efficience of fishieries.
Purpose. Forming a thematic bibliographic list of English-language publications on certain issues of molecular genetic and cytogenetic studies of sturgeon (Acipenseridae).
Methods. The complete and selective methods were applied in the process of the systematic search. The bibliographic core was made up of literary sources from electronic archives of world-renowned specialized scientific journals. In particular: Journal of Applied Ichthyology, Conservation Genetics, Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology etc.
Results. A thematic list of the main publications was composed: thematic scientific collections, materials of international scientific and practical conferences, scientific articles and abstracts of dissertations. It consists of 156 English-language papers. Presented publications cover the time interval for the last thirty years. The literary sources are arranged in alphabetical order by author or title, and described according to DSTU 8302:2015 “Information and documentation. Bibliographic reference. General principles and rules of composition”, with the amendments (code UKND 01.140.40), as well as in accordance with the requirements of APA style ‒ international standard of references.
Practical value. The prepared list may be useful for scientists, practitioners, students, whose sphere of interests is related to issues of molecular genetic and cytogenetic research, as well as biotechnology.