Purpose. To investigate the possible toxicity of the aquatic environment of the cooling reservoir of the Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant to control and prevent pollution of its ecosystem.
Methodology. During the study, a biological test method was used to determine the chronic water toxicity of the cooling reservoir using Ceriodaphnia affinis Lilljeborg (Cladocera, Crustacea) as a test object. The criterion for chronic toxicity was a statistically significant decrease in survival and fertility of the Ceriodaphnia in the experiment compared to control over the three consecutive litters for 7 days. The reliability of the differences between the control and the study was determined by the methods of variation statistics.
Findings. The article presents the results of the determination of the toxicity of water in the cooling reservoir of the Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant by the method of biotesting on Ceriodaphnia affinis Lilljeborg by establishing a reliable difference between survival and fertility in the control and experimental water samples. The prerequisite for studying the ecotoxicity of the aquatic environment of the investigated water body was the increased copper content in water, which was established by preliminary studies of the hydrochemical regime of the reservoir.
During the experimental period, no pathological changes in the experimental daphnia were found. The conducted study allowed making a conclusion that there was no toxic effect of the aquatic environment on the biota of the cooling reservoir and the possibility of using the method of biological amelioration to ensure the stabilization of its ecosystem.
Originality. The potential toxicity of the aquatic environment of the cooling reservoir of the Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant was estimated in conditions of significant anthropogenic pressure and its absence was established.
Practical value. The obtained data can be used in the development and justification of methods for stabilizing the ecosystems of cooling reservoirs and managing bioproductivity for the purpose of their economic development.
Purpose. To find out the present state of the structural and functional organization of the littoral zooplankton communities of the upper Kremenchuk reservoir in the area of the Kaniv Nature Reserve.
Methodology. The material was collected in the summer time of 2016 at six stations of the littoral zone of the upper Kremenchug reservoir. The collection and analysis were carried out using generally accepted methods. The objects of the research were representatives of three main groups of zooplankton (rotifers, cladocerans, copepods), as well as ostracods and larvae of bivalve molluscs. Statistical data processing was done in MS Excel 2013.
Findings. The results of the study represent the present state and organisation of littoral zooplankton. The species richness of the littoral zooplankton of the upper Kremenchug reservoir was presented by 48 species. There are 20 species of monogonont rotifers, 18 cladocerans species and copepods – 10. The representatives of the rotifer-cladoceran complex dominated in the taxonomic composition that can be explained by the preservation of the river regime and the rheophilic conditions in this part of the reservoir. The analysis showed that according to the ecological spectrum of zooplankton groups, the representatives of the pelagic group dominated – 47.92%. As for the feeding type, the largest share was represented by the non-predatory group – 64.58%. After analyzing of the quantitative indices (density and biomass) of zooplankton, it was found that they were lower than average for overgrown biotopes (112580 ± 129914 ind./m³ і 1.83 ± 2.07 g/m³) and low for open water (26160 ± 19161 ind./m³ і 0,82 ± 0,86 g/m³).
Originality. The present state of structural and functional organization of the littoral zooplankton communities of the upper Kremenchug reservoir has been revealed.
Practical significance. The conducted studies give the information about the structural and functional organization of the littoral zooplankton groups of the upper Kremenchug reservoir in the Kaniv Nature Reserve region that allows predicting further changes in zooplankton communities, assessment of the ecosystem and the calculation of the natural feed supply for juvenile fish.
Purpose. Determination of the influence of ammonia in waters from surface sources of water supply of Zhytomyr city on forming the toxicity of these waters determined by test-reactions of atypical motor activity of Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch, 1782) with the use of the «time sampling» method during 2012–2014.
Methodology. Biotesting was performed at the Municipal Enterprise "Zhytomyrvodokanal". Water samples were taken once a month time from the Teteriv river reservoirs and tap water network and then placed into aquaria (8 dm3 on a group). Control and experimental groups of fish were formed according to the following scheme: control group — samples of settled (24 hours) tap water; experimental group D-1 — water samples from the Denyshivske reservoir; experimental group D-2 — water samples from the Vidsichne water intake. Test specimens were females of C. auratus gibelio. Biotesting was conducted using the «time sampling» method by keeping fish (n=30) in water for 12 hours. The toxicity indexes of waters were calculated on the basis of the following test-reactions: spiral-like and vector movements, jumping out from water, immobilization and death of fish. Statistical processing of study results were performed using cross-correlation and regression analysis in MS Excel 2007 and Statistica-6.
Findings. The study showed an effect of ammonia on the toxicity of waters from reservoirs of the Teteriv river that was determined by atypical motor activity with the use of the «time sampling» method, which consisted in the instantaneous fixation of the number of individuals that favored one or another act of behavior. It was shown that females not adapted to the action of ammonia reacted to its concentration in water of more than 0.55 mg/dm3 by disorders in movements. Unlike fish of experience groups, only single pathological acts were observed in the control group. A positive moderate relationship, which had a tendency to an increase, was found between the ammonium content water of surface sources of water supply and their toxicity in 2012, and it reached high degree in 2014 (r=0.6773 in Denyshivske reservoir and r=0.6685 in Vidsichne water intake). The linear regression equations built from obtained data allow forecasting the toxicity of surface waters by ammonium concentration separately for the reservoir and water intake.
Originality. Dependence of the toxicity of waters from the surface sources of water supply of Zhytomyr city on ammonium content in these waters was first determined by test-reaction of atypical motor activity of C. auratus gibelio with the use of the «time sampling» method. The linear regression equations allowed determining the dangerous threshold of ammonia concentration (0.58 mg/dm3) which resulted in 50% water toxicity for C. auratus gibelio.
Practical value. Results of the study are used for biological monitoring of water toxicity of Teteriv river reservoirs.
Purpose. To evaluate the winter resistance of age-1+ Galician carp in pond conditions of the Prykarpattya region.
Methodology. Analysis of the winter resistance of age-1+ Galician carp was carried out at the base of the fish farm “Korop” during 2015-2017. Wintering took place in a 2.5 ha pond. Hydrochemical parameters were determined using general chemical tests. The temperature and oxygen regimes of water in ponds were determined by a thermo-oximeter. The material for the study were age-1+ Galician carp. Determination of fish culture parameters of the preparedness for wintering of the Galician carp was carried out according to the instructions for organizing the wintering of fish seeds in ponds. To analyze the physiological preparedness of carp for wintering, the method of zootechnical analysis was used.
Findings. The stocking density of age-1+ Galician carp in the wintering pond was 1000 kg/ha. The average individual weight of fish seeds ranged from 1650 g during 2015-2016 season and 1760 g during 2016-2017. The condition factor of age-1+ Galician carp was within the normative values. During the wintering season, the chemical composition of the meat-fillet of the Galician carp at the second year of culturing was within the normative parameters. During wintering, the environmental conditions corresponded to the necessary fish culture requirements. The dissolved oxygen content in water during the winter period did not exceed the critical limits. The water temperature ranged from 1 ° C to 8 ° C. As a result of fish harvesting in the wintering pond, 1483 and 1291 specimens of age-2 Galician carp were obtained in 2016 and 2017, respectively. The average individual weight of fish was 1450 ± 191 g and 1528 ± 124 g. The total yield from wintering exceeded 90%.
Originality. For the first time, an evaluation of winter resistance of age-1+ Galician carp in pond conditions of the Prykarpattya region was carried out.
Practical value. The results of the work will be used for planning the industrial rearing of the Galician carp.
Purpose. To study and analyze the results of the phenotypic parameters and the rate of linear and weight growth of 1+ salmonids (Salmo trutta m. fario, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Salvelinus fontinalis) grown in the tanks of the farm "Fish Stream" in the Transcarpathian region.
Methodology. Material for the study were 1+ brown trout, rainbow trout and brook trout served. Morphometric measurements of fish were carried out according to generally accepted techniques for salmonids. Weighing of fish was conducted on electronic analytical scales. Processing of the obtained data was performed in Microsoft Office Excel (2007). The analysis of variables was performed in the system of absolute values. The criteria for the analysis of parameters were their mean value and standard error (M ± m).
Findings. Based on the obtained results, a comparative analysis of morphometric measurements, exterior indices and growth rates of the investigated fish species was conducted. It was found that the highest condition factor was in brook trout - 1.52, somewhat lower it was in rainbow trout and the lowest in brown trout - 1.33 and 1.26, respectively. The big head index was the lowest in brown and rainbow trout - 21.2 and 21.42, respectively. The body height index of rainbow trout and brook trout was almost the same and quite low, indicating on their stockiness. When performing a detailed study of weight accumulation and average daily gain, it was found out that at age-1+, the highest final weight was in brook trout – 288.56 g, which is 10.01% and 118.5% more relative to rainbow trout and brown trout. On average, from April to September, the average daily gain in brook trout, rainbow trout and brown trout was 1.48 g, 1.37 and 0.67 g, respectively.
Originality. For the first time in Western Ukraine, a study of morphometric parameters and growth rates of age-1+ fish of valuable species of trout farming was conducted.
Practical Value. In the process of salmonid rearing with continuous study of their weights, morphometric, morphological and physiological features, the obtained results can be used to improve fish-technological and breeding work in the direction of increasing meat production and improving the production efficiency of certain salmonid species.
Purpose. To study the influence of Spirulina рlatensis, which was previously treated by a non-traditional method, on physiological and biochemical processes in the organism of hydrobionts. To analyze the growth rate of Ukrainian scaly carp and tilapia under the influence of the feeding factor.
Methodology. Experimental studies were carried out in the laboratory of biological resources and aquaculture. Following was performed during the experiments: clinical examination of hydrobionts, control of growth rates, survival rate by recording the results in a working journal, physiological studies, analysis of morphological and functional blood indices, which were performed according to generally accepted methods.
Findings. It was found that the proposed method of non-traditional processing of feed resource for hydrobionts promoted the activation of metabolic processes, contributed to the improvement of fish development indices. During the process of cultivation of Spirulina рlatensis, the use of plasma-chemically activated water had a positive effect on the dynamics of development.
Originality. This article presents for the first time the results of a positive effect of the pretreatment of Spirulina platensis culture with plasma-chemically activated water for its feeding to hydrobionts. A positive effect of this method of feeding on the functional status of fish organism and the process of adaptation-compensatory mechanisms in ontogenesis has been found.
Practical value. The proposed method will provide an opportunity to improve the rate of the development of hydrobionts, physiological and biochemical processes with the maximum utilization of the potential of fish organism at the stages of active growth, and also to reduce the cost of artificial feeds.
Purpose. To investigate the effect of feed supplements "NUPRO" and "BIO-MOS" on basic hematological indices of the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).
Methodology. Hematological studies on the effect of feed supplements "NUPRO" and "BIO-MOS" on the indices of age-1+ Nyvkiv scaly intrabreed type carp have been performed according to the generally accepted methodology. Experiments were conducted in the conditions of DPDG "Nyvka" of the Institute of Fisheries of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. Fish ponds with an area of 0.5 hectares stoked with age-1 carp where used for the study. The stocking density was 3.0 thousand fish / ha.
Findings. The study showed that feeding of age-1+ carp with a balanced PKC 111 - 2/2/4 feed formula with the addition of 5% feed supplement “NUPRO” and 2% “BIO-MOS®” in comparison with the control group, which was fed with the same feed formula but without feed supplement, resulted in the improvement of basic hematological parameters in the experimental fish. These preparations had a positive effect on leukocyte formula and stimulated phagocytic activity of neutrophils, which greatly increased the immune status of the carp. At the same time, the hydrochemical parameters in the experimental ponds were within the normal limits and the temperature regime was optimal for growth and metabolism of carp organism. Thus, it can be recommended to introduce these feed supplements to the diet of age-1+ carp to enhance the immune status of the organism, which in turn will result in higher yields from growing and additional weight gains of fish.
Originality For the first time, an analysis of the effect of feed supplements "NUPRO" and "BIO-MOS" on hematological parameters of age-1+ Nyvka scaly carp was performed.
Practical value. In order to increase the immune status of the carp, it is proposed to use feed supplements "NURORO" and "BIO-MOS" when rearing age-1+ carp/.
Purpose. Forming a thematic bibliographic list of publications on certain issues of the biotechnics of the cultivation of tilapia (Tilapiinae) in accordance with the specificity of aquaculture in the conditions of different types of fish farms of Europe, Asia, and Africa.
Methodology. In the process of the preparation of the thematic list, both holistic and selective methods have been used. The bibliographic core was formed by Ukrainian, Russian and English literature sources from the stock of the scientific library of the Institute of Fisheries NAAS and scientific electronic library “CyberLeninka”.
Findings. A thematic bibliographic list of major publication was formed: thematic collections of research papers, proceedings of international scientific and practical conferences, scientific works, articles and dissertation abstracts. It is composed of 202 sources, 85 of which are in English. The listed publications cover a time period from 1965 to 2017. However, the majority of them are after 1991. The scientific sources illustrate the studies on feeding, selective breeding, ecology, culture technologies and aquaculture-biological characteristics of the most widespread fish in world aquaculture – tilapia. The literary sources are arranged in alphabetical order by author or title, and described according to DSTU 8302:2015 “Information and documentation. Bibliographic reference. General principles and rules of composition”, with the amendments (code UKND 01.140.40), as well as in accordance with the requirements of APA style — international standard of references.
Practical value. The list may be useful for scientists, practitioners, students, whose area of interests covers the questions of the cultivation and study of the biological features of tilapia.