There is examined the current biological state of fish populations, which consist the base of commercial harvest in the Kakhovka reservoir. There are analyzed basic trends, which characte- rize the change of age structure of exploited populations and repartition of catches by mesh size in fishing gears. There are assessed dynamics of commercial stocks recruitment and formation of fish base for commercial harvest. There are proposed optimization ways for commercial exploita- tion of the Kakhovka reservoir.
There are determined and analyzed basic indices, which characterize reaction of bream popu- lation of the Kiev reservoir on effect of commercial harvest at current level of its organization. There are determined parameters of commercial load, which have to be regulated for rational exploitation of bream population.
There has been analyzed the current state of roach commercial stock of the Kanev reservoir. With the aid of cohort analysis, there were estimated fishing mortality, possible number, and bio- mass of commercial stock of this species for 2005–2006. There were modelled yields per recruits of silver bream using a Thompson and Bell type model. According to results, the roach commercial stock of the Kanev reservoir is exploited irrationally.
Influencing of hydrological conditions on morphological indications of roach from different reservoirs was considered. It was concluded that significant determination of some of plastic indications or their groups for typical river or lake roach’s forms is not possible.
There was studied the state of spawning grounds of the Kremenchuk reservoir. There are presented results of studies on determination of areas of shallow water sites of the Kremenchuk reservoir, which are suitable for reproduction of fish and their juveniles. It was found that major spawning grounds were upper and lower parts of the reservoir.
Resulted taking on specific composition of fish of the Kachovka storage pool in a period to close of flow of Dnepr and on the modern stage. It is set that for period of existence of storage pool specific composition of fish changed substantially. Presently clupeonella and silver carps come forward the most numerous users of plankton of the Kachovka storage pool. The changes of their age structure are in this connection analysed during 1992–2005 it is Set that statistical information on the issue of silver carps in a storage pool, during the last years does not answer reality.
Nutrition spectrum and bolus composition of bream of the Kremenchuk reservoir during it’s the most intensive feeding period was studied in comporative-temporal aspect with the aid. There were revealed the dominating role of preferred food (larva and pupa of Chironomidae) and decrease of detritus and sand content in fish bolus. This fact allows ascertaining that there are favorable conditions for bream fattening in Kremenchuk reservoir.
There was examined the change of basic biological indices of perch population of the Dniester River reservoir for a long period. There were determined and analyzed factors, which defined the dynamics of its number and particularities of perch distribution over the reservoir area. There were proposed measures for optimization of ichthyofauna structure of the Dniester River reservoir as a fisheries water body.
The method is used for finding optimal ways to rehabilitate natural water objects with mini- mum costs expenditure. Under present conditions the most effective is the minimum program: the and reservation of local fish restoring sites, the recreation of natural spawning and hibernation pockets, the arrangement of water protecting strips and their physical introduction into reality, the use of natural relief elements for restoring fish and post treatment of waste waters, the fight against poachers.
The article contains results of larvae ongrowing and black carp fingerlings growing in polycul- ture with grass carp. Optimum indexes are got at larvae ongrowing with the density 100 thousand fish/ha duration 20 days. Maximal fish-productivity and survival of fingerlings is attained at growing of them from ongrown fry with a density 20 thousand fish/ha.
It is investigated series of physiological-biochemical parameters of a reed mace platyphyllous and yellow water lilies on a background anthropogenic influence on an ecosystem of separate sections r. Ros. The obtained data allow judging a level of ecological trouble of the polluted sec- tions of the river.
The sexual products of paddlefish (Polyodon spathula (Walbaum)) females in their first year of maturation were of low quality. The highest reproductive indices were observed in broodfish that had been used repeatedly. Testing different hormonal substances indicated that the best paddlefish , arti- ficial reproduction was observed with the application of LHRH-A to stimulate female maturation. The method of obtaining mature oocytes by puncturing the female abdominal wall near the genital opening was noted to be very efficient. There were conducted successful experiments with low-temperature preservation of paddlefish sperm. Survival rate of defrosted sperm cells was not less than 77%.
In the article the questions of efficiency of commodity fish growing in ponds in different technologies, quality and production cost price are expounded. It is determined, that growing of two-years old carp hybrids at the density of one-years about 2100–2200 fish/hа provides the receipt of two-years with individual weight 820–1050 g and fish-productivity 1040–1297 kg/ha.
Demonstrated is effectiveness of growing up carp and silver carp larvae in spawning ponds with limited water supply (10–15 litres per min) density level is not more than 1–2 mln. larvae per hectare; determined is possibility of using plastic traps to control growth intensity of larvae, their survival and influence of feeding base (zooplankton).
The characteristic of scaleless of a common carp of the Transkarpatian plant line of the second generation of selection by exterior and reproductive indexes is presented. It is shown that param- eters of a constitution of breeders F2 in comparison with the Lyubin frame carp and reproductive indexes — in comparison with the carp Frasinet are considerably improved.
Results of research hematological indicators of young-of-the-years and yearlings carp-like fishes are resulted. It is established, that change of those or other parameters of internal of yearlings testifies to certain changes of a physiological condition young and can be considered as a specific signal for working out of corresponding preventive actions and optimization of technological parameters at the organization of process of cultivation two-year-olds.
In work the results of selection and accumulation of bakteriofagiv are presented from the cultures of microorganisms which were selected in the laboratory of ikhtiopatologii of UAAN from the different types of fishes with the signs of disease and from a navkolishn’go environment. Research of their properties and selection of lizogennikh mutations with the purpose of their use as a biological method, for the fight of freshwater fishes bacterial illnesses.
The resulted is given theoretical ground of alternative method of of microtome of tissues of hyd- robionts. Shown expedience of the complex use of angular method of cutting and arched reception of histological objects. The question of subsequent introduction of arched microtome is affected in research practice with the purpose of study of features of histological structure of fishes.
The dynamics of fishery science development in the Belarus for 80 years, problems of market fish production and intensification ways are expounded. Raised the questions of economy of re- sources and next researches directions.
Influence of wheat grains slop on the development of aquatic organisms important as fish fodder in fingerling fish pond is investigated. It is proved that single discharge into the fingerling fish pond of 2 ton/ha of wheat grains slop in spring is more effective than using manure for zoo- plankton structure formation.
There has been analyzed current state of silver bream of the Kremenchuk reservoir. With the aid of cohort analysis, there were estimated fishing mortality, possible number, and biomass of commercial stock of this species for 2005–2006. There were modelled yields per recruits of silver bream using a Thompson and Bell type model.
The influence of amateur fishery on general and trade ichthyofauna Kahovska reservoir is determined. Fixed, that the volumes by the angling of separate protected kinds of fishes on mass come nearer to trade, and by quantity of the caught copies exceed them.
The possibility of usage the scale index, which was proposed for gold fish (Carrasius auratus gibelio Bloch), for roach slow-growing form identification was estimated. The scales Length-weight proportion are variable depending on place on body, so only scales placed above lateral line (N 12–23 counting from head) should be used.
Longstanding studies found that major ways of increasing efficiency of Chinese carps intro- duction into Kakhovka reservoir is optimization of their species structure by excluding hybrids from the stock and introduction into commercial harvest a selective catch of older-aged groups conjointly with meliorative harvest of clupeonella.
It was shown that rise in acidity of freshwater ecosystems and soils was caused by binding mineral components (mainly calcium and magnesium) by carbon dioxide and organic acids and their carryover to seas and oceans. Particularly actively this process goes in the zone with humid and cold climate because aggressiveness of carbon dioxide increases with temperature decrease. Speed of calcium pumping currently significantly increased due to increased content of sulphur in the biosphere. Thus, natural geological process of fresh waters acidification is intensified by acidic pollution of anthropogenic origin.
Analyze of change of structure of ichtyofauna of river Desna in limits of Ukraine in XX-th century and firsts years XXI century carried out. Most species structure of ichtyofauna of this river is presented.
The research is dedicated to hydro-biologic and hydro-chemical state of wintering, spawning and feeding ponds including the influence of some indicators on physiological state of breeding fish during spawning
Influencing of carp planting stock weight at fattening ponds stocking, density of larvae and one-year on the size of market fish, physical and chemical indexes, and presence of edible parts, calorie content of carcasses is studied.
The preliminary estimate of several preparations for artificial stimulation of maturation of the fish sexual product is sown. The insignificant advantage of traditional hypophysial injecting in females of silver and bighead carps in comparing with existing releasing–hormones.
The scheme of crossing, the desirable type, the main of targeted standards and the methods of approaching to breeding of the new type of the mirror of common carp of Ukrainian frame breed is shown. The dynamics of numbers of the pedigree core of the breeders in the main basic fish-farms is presented.
There are presented results of studies on evaluation of development of crossed Ukrainian-Ro- manian carps on early stages of ontogenesis after thermoshock effect. It was observed an increase of resistance of thermoshocked embryos against unfavorable environmental factors. It was shown а possibility for forecasting heterosis effect in more heatresistant embryos.
The article are consist the results of introduction of enzymic preparation of “Magrozim” in the ration of larvae of catfish from the first days of transition to the exogenous feed. It is set that the explored preparation gives most fish-breeder and biological effect at the dose of introduction 1 kg of preparation on 1 tone of the mixed fodder.
There are presented data on quantity of separate populations of T- and quantity of B-lymphocytes in blood of 2-year old Lubin frame carps and Amur wild carps and their hybrid forms grown at stocking density of 2500 and 1000 fish/ha. Differences in quantity of T- and B-lymphocytes and their activity in fish of studied genotypes are insignificant. It was found a significantly higher quantity of T-lymphocytes and lower quantity of B-lymphocytes in blood of fish of all genotypes grown at lower stocking density.
The complex of problems of fishery devel- opment in Russian Federation is presented. In modern terms the creation of competitive fish industry is determined by efficiency of innova- tive home and foreign developments application. Especially it is important in aquaculture.
The state of production of marketable fish at specialized fishery enterprises is studied. The necessity of application of intensive technologies at pond an estuary enterprises. The prospects of development of specialized enterprises are considered.
There has been analyzed commercial harvest of roach in the Kremenchuk reservoir from 1982 to 2006. Virtual population analysis was used to assess minimum roach commercial stock number and biomass. Current state of the roach stock was modeled with the aid of the Thompson and Bell model. According to obtained results, currently, roach commercial stock of the Kremenchuk reservoir is exploited irrationally.
There have been analyzed physicochemical and hydro biological conditions in process of growing young starlets (Acipenser ruthenus L.) during three years. There have been presented characteristics and showed a role of separate water population elements in process of fish-pro- ductivity forming.
There have been analyzed current status of natural forage base (zooplankton, zoobenthos) of the Irshava River and its tributaries from its upper course to the mouth in the spring-summer period of 2004.
Efficiency of polyculture in the pond fish-farming is shown. It is defined, that as a result of fattening ponds stocking, except for a carp, by herbivorous fishes, paddlefish and by a pike, fish productivity of ponds rises in 1,6 and diminishes expense of artificial forages on growing of carps on 33%.
Comparative estimation of efficiency of carp hybrids growing in polyculture at two-year and three-year cycles is resulted. Carp hybrids two-years achieved weight 820–1050 g and this index almost do not differ from market three-years (accordingly, 839 and 920 g). Fish-productivity of two-years made 1040–1297 kg/ha, and three-years — 959–1070 kg/ha.
The complex investigations with purpose of comparative estimation of immune response of 8 lines of common carp of different origin with using of artificial challenge infection by bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila was performed. The research work was fulfilled by financial supporting of NATO Science Fellowship at Institute of Ichthyobiology and Aquaculture of Polish Academy of Science.
There have been presented results on evaluation of selection F2 generation of 3-year old rain- bow trout. It was determined that F2 generation preserved growing tendency of productive and reproductive parameters. Working fertility parameter in females increased by 128,7%, ejaculation volume of males increased by 45,8% versus parental F1 generation.
Increased intake of nonesterified forms of linoleic and linolenic acids in organism of carp along with oils and fusas contributes to more effective conversion of them in the liver into the more high-molecular and more unsaturated metabolites of n-6 (eicosatrienic and eicosatetraeni- carachidonic acids) and n-3 (eicosapentaenic, docosadienic, docosatrienic, docosapentaenic and docosahexaenic acids) kind respectively.
The expediency of creation the specialized crayfish farm is substantiated in this article. It is a crayfish nursery in which the juveniles could growing up to one-year stage. As a brooding crayfish stock we are using the natural population in the large commercial water reservoir.
The introduction to the nutrition of two-years carps of fenaron in count of 10 mg for one ton during 10 days leads to the rise of the deal of haematocrit figure, of the concentration of haemo- globin, of the quantity of erytrocits and to the rise of globules.
The development of small agricultural waterbodies should be based on using of their natural biological potential. Consequence of it will be the reception of cheaper fresh fish accessible to the population. The application of the integrated technologies and the elimination of disharmonies in an evaluation of work results in an agriculture and in the industry are very important.
Тhe further development of small waterbodies should be combined with the complex develop- ment of agricultural territories and the state support.
Article is devoted to urgent problems and perspectives of development selection and brood- stock breeding in fish-farming of Ukraine in conditions of implement of the Act of Ukraine “ About livestock breeding” and other normative — legal documents.
Analysis of genetic structure at various breeds and hybrid groups of carp was carry out. Most informative for discovering of intergroup variations were malatdegidrogenaza and 6-phosphoglu- konatdegidrogenaza enzymes and locus of transferrin. The polymorphism value of these systems are may promote the objective control of imbreeding power of the fish groups and also the modi- fication of genetic structure in generations and in various breeding conditions.
The application of wheat germinate corn in feeding of carp two-years old evidence about positive influence on the physiology condition of fish, food and biological value of meat and determines enough high economic efficiency.
It was researched the influence of iodine salts KJ and KJO3 which were added to the fish-breed- ing ponds on the activity of hydrocarbon digestion of the Lyubin` scale carps. It was established that the action of 0,1 g/m3 of KJ during 92 days doesn’t cause the changes of medium value of carbohidrase activity in the digestive system of Lyubin` scale carps. The action of KJO3 under the similar condition decreases the cavity carbohidrase activity in the medial part 53% in comparison with control.
It has been established that during the summer period the content of acid’s lipids Molecular rich acids in the liver of Lubinskyi scate carp, the white carp and the silver carp rises in 2,66, 2,97 and 3,47, and of the free fatty acids in 2,50, 2,62 and 2,77 times. During this summer the Molecular rich acids of lipids and tne free fatty acids in the liver of silver carps and white carps in comparaison with the Lubinskyi scale carp is lower.
It is stated, that a nourishment makes an impact on the content of free amino acid in the organism of the examined fish. Depending on the nourishment of the given species of fish the amino acids that belong to aliphatic and cyclic groups prevailed in their muscles. Absence of free tryptophan in the muscular tissue of all examined fish during the summer period indicates that the feed base was maximum possible for both the predatory fish as well as for benthophage.
There are presented results of morphological studies of two-years-old rainbow trout. There was determined the weight of different organs and body parts of commodity fish, which had different initial weights. It was found that fish with bodyweight of 240–265 g had the highest percentage (66,3%) of fillet.
Work is devoted to analysis of fecundity dynamics of Alosa caspia tanaica of Dnieper-Bug estuary. Modern condition in comparison with the last years was analyzed. Attempt to connect fecundity with catches was made.