Purpose. The State of Israel is one of the world leaders in the development of modern technologies, particularly in fisheries industry. E.g., 30 fish farms annually provide production of over 18,000 tons of fish, with an average yield of more than 8 tons per hectare. The fish equipment manufactured in this country is supplied to the Asia, Africa, Europe, South and North America countries, Australia. Israelis' specialists and companies design, build and implement engineering and technological support of fish-breeding enterprises in the EU, China, Nigeria, Georgia, Russia, Belarus, etc. The ongoing shortage of water in the country has spurred innovation in water conservation techniques, and a substantial agricultural modernization, drip irrigation. Israel is also at the technological forefront of desalination and water recycling. The Sorek desalination plant is the largest seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination facility in the world. As of 2015, more than 50 percent of water for Israeli households, agriculture and industry is artificially produced. The country hosts an annual Water Technology and Environmental Control Exhibition & Conference (WATEC) that attracts thousands of people from all over the world. In 2011, Israel's water technology industry was worth around $2 billion a year with annual exports of products and services of dozens of millions of dollars. Due to innovations in reverse osmosis technology, Israel is set to become a net exporter of water in the incoming years. At the same time, publications in Ukraine about the aquaculture branch of Israel concern mainly statistical information, or are devoted to individual ichthyopathological problems, genetic studies, etc. It does not allow analyzing a comprehensive development in this industry of Israel. Thus, the compilation and analysis of existing information is a relevant issue. This article expands the awareness of specialists on the specifics of fisheries industry, marine and freshwater fisheries in Israel, aquaculture technologies, and other fisheries related topics in Israel.
Findings. The work written by the organizer and participants of the training course "Intensive Pond Fish Culture", which was held in Israel in December 2016, is a comprehensive survey of modern aquaculture in Israel. In particular, it describes the characteristics of freshwater and marine fish farming and fishing, the technologies used as well as the state fisheries management system.
Practical value. This review would help to modernize management approaches in fisheries sector of Ukraine, educational and scientific activities, and develop the international cooperation with Israel.
Purpose. To analyze the current state of the populations of roach, bream, pikeperch and silver bream in the Zaporozhye (Dnipro) reservoir and to determine the acceptable amounts of commercial harvest of these fish species for 2017 by determining scientifically justified limits.
Methodology. The summarized results of ichthyological studies conducted during 2010–2016 years were used during the research. The materials were collected in the Zaporizhzhya (Dnipro) Reservoir using standard fish sampling methods. A set of standard fishing gears (gill nets with mesh sizes of 30–120 mm) was used for studying fish fauna. Juvenile fish were caught in the third decade of July – first decade of August using a beach seine of 10 m in length. The processing of collected samples was conducted by conventional methods.
Findings. We studied the current state of commercial fish populations, the exploitation of which is limited (roach, bream, pikeperch, silver bream). We determined the basic biological parameters of these species, determined the age and sex structure of their populations and assessed their stocks. Based on these data, we determined the rates of natural, fishing and total mortality and calculated the amounts of commercial catches of the investigated fish species.
With an optimum catch of the roach not exceeding 25% of the calculated stock, we recommended to set a limit on the catch of this species for 2017 as 190 tons. Next year, it is advisable to set a limit for the bream catch not higher than 88 tons. Due to a critical state of the pikeperch stock in the Zaporozhye (Dnieper) reservoir, the recommended limit of its catch for 2017 should not exceed 14 tons. The estimated catch limit for the silver bream for the following year is recommend to be 70 tons. The harvst of these fish species within the proposed limits will allow carrying out their commercial exploitation without environmental damage.
Originality. We presented the results of the study of the stat of commercially important fish populations, the harvest of which is limited annually. These approaches to the commercial harvest of the roach, bream, pikepearch and silver bream are aimed at introducing and implementaing the scientific justification of commercial fish exploitation in the Zaporozhye (Dnipro) reservoir.
Practical value. Determination of the proposed commercial harvest limits for the roach, bream, pikeperch and silver bream ensures a rational use of aquatic living resources and conservation of the stocks of the commercial fish species in the conditions of fishing pressure.
Purpose To analyze technical and biological parameters of Galician carp young-of-the-year in the conditions of their commercial rearing in Subcarpathia ponds.
Methodology. The works have been performed in accordance with conventional techniques in fish farming and selective breeding. During the rearing of Galician carp yearlings, a monitoring of abiotic factors in the experimental pond has been carried out.
Findings. According to hydrochemical analysis, pond water belonged to hydrocarbonate class of calcium water and a type, which is typical for natural waters of this physical-geographic area. The species composition of phytoplankton at the beginning of the study was represented by 39 species and intraspecific taxa, in the middle of the experiment — 33, and 36 species and intraspecific taxa at the end of the study period. The majority of phytoplankton species composition was represented by green algae. The majority of zooplankton biomass (up 46%) was represented by copepods, while rotifers dominated by abundance (up 49.9%). The parameters of zoobenthos development in the rearing pond ranged within 54 - 120 ind. / m2 by abundance and 0.5 - 1.3 g / m2 by biomass. The most abundant zoobenthic organisms were Chironomidae (71%) and Oligochaeta (29%).
Fish stocking density in the rearing pond of the 1st order was 10 thousand fish/ha; fish seeds were represented by Galician carp larvae. At the end of the growing season, 27.2 thousand young-of-the-year were obtained, the survival rate was 68%. Mean individual weight was 96 ± 75 g, coefficient of variation was 12%. When assessing the dynamics of weight growth, its peak was observed in the first week of August, while the specific growth rate had maximum values in the third week of July. Exterior parameters were used to evaluate strain characteristics. In the middle of the growing season, the young-of-the-year had mean condition factor of 2.6 ± 0.3, which was high enough for them. Before wintering, this value increased to 3.0 ± 0.2. The head index at the beginning of the growing season was 4.4 ± 0.7, at the end of the growing season it decreased to 3.3 ± 0.1. The body depth index index ranged from 2.5 ± 0.1 to 2.6 ± 0.03. The body girth index was 1.1 ± 0.1. The caudal peduncle ranged from 1.9 ± 0.2 to 1.4 ± 0.2, while the coefficient of variation was 15% to 18%. According to the obtained results, the technical parameters of Galician carp young-of-the-year were higher than normative values.
Originality. For the first time we evaluated the basic technical and biological parameters of Galician carp young-of-the-year. The assessment of exterior parameters of the study object during the growing season was provided. The evaluation of Galician carp young-of-the-year in the conditions of commercial rearing in Subcarpathiaт ponds was performed.
Practical value. Industrial cultivation Galician carp young-of-the-year will provide an opportunity to produce high-quality material for further production of age-2 fish as well as will allow increasing fish productivity parameters in pond fish farms in the Subcarpathiaт region.
Purpose. Examine and analyze the current state of storage fingerlings acipenseriformes cultivation, including sturgeon and paddlefish, in terms of industrial-experimental Dnieper sturgeon fish-growing factory located in the southern Ukraine.
Methodology. The problems were solved by the conventional methods in hydrochemistry, hydrobiology and fish farming. The results were processed using statistical methods of the data processing and analysis which suggest it reliable.
Findigs. The research has established that physical and chemical parameters of water in farms' ponds answered the operating pond fishery regulations.
The existing level of natural forage base elements can be considered satisfacting for the growing storage material. The best development of zooplankton in the application of polyculture acipenseriformes should be noted.
The monoculture benefit was observed in the most fisheries indicators for certain types. Sturgeon fish productivity advantage in terms of polyculture is the evidence of positive mutual influences among the reservoir consumers of different trophic levels.
In terms of polyculture the significant benefit of total fish productivity indicator was observed. It clearly points to the prospects of the measure in terms of substantial efficiency of pond areas for growing storage fingerlings. Results of acipenseriformes growing in mono- and polyculture clearly favor the polyculture, which could be used in breeding practice.
Scientific Originality. In specific conditions of the southern Ukraine the influence of environmental and technological conditions for growing storage fingerlings acipenseriformes fish (sturgeon and paddlefish) was investigated for the first time. In terms of mono- and polyculture cultivation storage acipenseriformes fish material was firstly explored.
Practical Value. The results of cultivation can be used in breeding practice as the norm of the environmental situation evaluation in the ponds. Growing storage fingerlings acipenseriformes in polyculture allows better usage of the natural food base, improving productivity and efficient usage of farms' water growing areas.
Purpose. Study and analysis of productive and reproductive parameters of brood brown trout reared in the conditions of industrial aquaculture with the use of feeding with specialized artificial feeds.
Methodology. Fish rearing was performed using a technology traditional for rainbow trout. Biological evaluation of fish was performed on live material according to the scheme developed by I.F. Pravdin (1966) for salmonids. Fish were anesthetized with “Propiscin”. Metric parameters were measured with the aid of a ruler and caliper. Fish weight was determined on electronic balances. Eggs were preserved in a 4% formalin solution, weight of individual eggs was determined with the aid of torsion balances, egg diameter with a caliper. The duration of spermatozoid motility in males was determined under a microscope under 10X40 magnification with the aid of a stopwatch, sperm concentration was determined in a Goriaev chamber. Multiple regression analysis was performed in JMP IN 4 (SAS Institute). The factor was considered significant if р <0.05.
Findings. Brood brown trout reared on specialized artificial feeds had following productive parameters: mean body weight of age-3 fish was 458 g in males and 453 g in females. Mean working fecundity of age-3 fish as 1847 eggs, mean relative working fecundity was 3971 eggs, the mean qualitative parameters of which were: weight of 61.5 g, diameter of 74.7 mm. The reproductive characteristics of age-3 males was high – mean fecundity was 1391 million sperm cells, their motility was 35 sec.
Originality. For the first time we reared a stock of brood brown trout in industrial conditions with the use of feeding with specialized artificial feeds.
Practical value. The obtained results are a component of the development of a complex technology of salmonid fish rearing with an objective to broad the assortment of valuable gourmet products and to justify the measures on artificial reproduction of brown trout in rivers of the Carpathian region.
Purpose. To study the effect of thistle seeds introduced into the basic diet of carp, the functional state of antioxidant protection (AOP) and the formation of lipid peroxidation products (LPP) in fish hepatopancreas.
Methodology. The study has been carried out at the Lviv Research Station of the Institute of Fisheries in duplicate. The first replication was done in 2013, the second one in 2014 at industrial conditions of ponds with similar areas and with the same source of water supply. The object of the study were age-2 Lubin scaled carp. The experiment consisted of four variants and lasted 60 days. The control group of carp received a complete combined feed without additives during the entire growing season, while the experimental groups 1, 2 and 3 received feeds supplemented with 1, 5 and 10% of milled thistle. Thistle was introduced into the feed composition by granulation method. At the end of the experiment, tissue samples of the experimental groups of fish were taken for biochemical analysis. We used 10% tissue homogenates of carp hepatopancreas. We investigated the concentration of diene conjugates using a method based on the reaction of optical density of lipid heptanizopropanol extract. The determination of TBA-active products was carried out spectrophotometrically based on the color reaction with tiobarbitur acid. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was studied by determining the percentage inhibition of nitroblue tetrazolium reduction reaction in the presence of fenazynmetasulfate. The activity of catalase was analyzed based on the concentration of H2O2. The determination of protein content was performed by Bradford method. The processing of experimental results was performed by variational statistics. Statistically significant difference was assessed using a Student t-test.
Findings. As a result of experimental studies in industrial conditions in duplicate, we detected AOP activation and reduction in LPO process intensity in hepatopancreas of all three experimental groups of carp, which received the feed supplemented with 1, 5 and 10% of milled thistle as compared to the control. This trend was more pronounced when using 1 and 5% of this additive in feed composition. In particular, the SOD content significantly increased (P<0.001) in the first replicate and there was a trend for its increase by 13.8–58.2% in the second replicate as well as a reduction in the concentration of the end lipid peroxidation products of LPO (MDA) by 19.9–73.7%. Thus, the use of thistle has a positive effect on antioxidant system on age-2 carp, which in turn will have a positive effect on the functional state of their organism.
Originality. The problem of finding the means to mitigate the impact of stress factors on carp, which arise during their rearing, is relevant in today's conditions, since they adversely affect the functional state of fish organism as a whole. An effective way to solve this problem is to use feed supplemented with substances with antioxidant properties. Taking into account the positive results in animal husbandry and some experience in fish farming, the studies of the efficiency of the use of thistle in feeding carp and the determination of norms and methods of its prolonged addition to the diet of carp is an urgent task that has both scientific and practical importance.
Practical value. The determination of a positive effect of the use of thistle seeds in carp feeding on the activity of the course of oxidative processes in fish body will allow fish farmers to obtain a cost-effective and environmentally safe mean of levelling the stress factors that have a negative effect on fish during their rearing, at the same time directly influencing on the productivity of fish ponds.
Purpose. To examine the dynamics of hematological parameters of cyprinids during winter and to determine certain relationships of these or other internal parameters of the experimental groups of the young-of-the-year and yearlings.
Methodology. Studies are based on experimental and laboratory methods adopted in the fishery, physiological and statistical studies.
Findings. The obtained data of the physiological state of fish after wintering indicate on the reduced content of total blood protein; high number of red blood cells from 1.7 to 2.4 mil/ml in bighead carp and grass carp, high erythropoiesis (8.0–25.0%) of red blood cells; reduction in the content of white blood cells with an increased share of neutrophil granulocyte in leukocyte formula. The biochemical analysis of blood serum showed a typical reduction in total blood protein and reduction in glucose within 25.0–53.1%. There was a pronounced reduction in triglycerides and cholesterol by 24.7–59.5%. Eosinophils, basophils, foam cells and blasts occur sporadically. The correlation analysis showed a significant positive relationship between blood physiological indices and mean weight as well as condition factor in all studied carp species.
Originality. The analysis of the hematological parameters of blood parameters in relation to wintering of the young-of-the-year common carp, silver carp, bighead carp, and grass carp reared by fish ranching technology was carried out for the first time. It was found that changes in hematological parameters of carp yearlings indicated on certain changes in the physiological state of fish seeds and could be considered as a specific signal for the development of appropriate preventive measures and optimization of the technological parameters when organizing the process of age-2 fish rearing.
Practical value. These data can be used as a component of quality indication and general physiological condition of fish seeds.
Purpose. To analyze scientific sources on the physiological, biochemical, ecological and genetic features of the main hematological paremeters and patterns of their variability in sturgeon species (Acipenseridae). To examine the fundamental aspects of lipid and protein metabolism in blood serum and the effect of biotic and abiotic factors on them. To highlight the common features of serum enzymes.
Findings. A review of scientific papers revealed that although hematological parameters of sturgeons are generally similar to those of teleosts and mammals, there are a number of significant differences. In addition, many hematological parameters are characterized by species specificity, even within a family. Special attention is given to the variability of hematological parameters under the effect of factors of both internal and external environment. The paper describes the effects of sex and age, as well as the seasons of the year on the compositio of sturgeon blood. The fundamentals of the use of serum proteins in genetic and population studies are outlined. The features of the functioning of hemoglobin in sturgeon’s red blood cells are examined. The main hematological parameters involved in the formation and maturation of sexual products, and their effect on fertility are reviewed. For example, the spawners, which hadn’t put reproductive product, are characterized by a low rate of hemoglobin, increase in erythrocyte sedimentation speed and also a rise of the level of crude protein in blood and β-lipoproteid serum.The biochemical parameters (total protein and fractions, glucose, creatinine, cholesterol), the activity of some enzymes (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase) in serum are examined.
Practical value. The systematized data on the main hematological parameters and patterns of their variability in sturgeon species will be useful for both scientits and fish farmers. This is due to the fact that the analysis of blood as the most labile system of fish organism, not only clearly reflects the physiological state of the individual in specific conditions of existence, but is also used in genetic and population studies. Thus, the knowledge of the basic patterns of the formation of blood composition of sturgeon fish is necessary for further research in fisheries science. An array of the generalized information will be useful for the creation of replacement broodstocks, assessment of the quality of juveniles, determination of the readiness degree of broodfish for spawning, in ichthyopathological situations at fish farms, etc.
Purpose. Creating a thematic bibliographic list of publications in Ukrainian and Russian, dedicated to the ecology, biology, selection and cultivation of such Far East fish fauna species as black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus Richardson) in conditions of fish farms of Ukraine and neighboring countries, as well as the possibility of it introduction into water bodies for bioameliorative purpose.
Methodology. The complete and selective methods were applied in the process of the systematic search. The bibliographic core has been formed with the literature from the fund of the scientific library of the Institute of Fisheries NAAS.
Findings. There was composed a thematic list of publications with a total quantity of 67 sources, containing characteristics of black carp as representative of cyprinids, which is very important species from the point of view of aquaculture. This bibliography covers the time period from 1949 till 2011.The literary sources were arranged in alphabetical order by author or title, and described according to DSTU 7.1:2006 «System of standards on information, librarianship and publishing. Bibliographic entry. Bibliographic description. General requirements and rules», as well as in accordance with the requirements of APA style — international standard of references.
Practical value. The list may be useful for scientists, practitioners, students, whose area of interests covers the questions of breeding and study of the biological features of black carp.