Purpose.To iInvestigate and analyze the peculiarities of the accumulation of heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Zn, Cd, Pb, Co, Ni and Mn) in the organs (muscles, gills, liver, kidneys, fins, intestine) and tissues of sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus Linnaeus, 1758) for detecting the patterns of their accumulation and predicting the effect of their toxicological load on the organism of sturgeons as well as for evaluating the polymetallic load on this species in the Dnieper-Bug estuary.
Methodology. The material for the research was represented by 3+ – 4+ sterlet caught in the spring of 2016 in the Dnieper-Bug estuary. Organs and tissue samples were homogenized and then burned in a mixture of concentrated nitric (HNO3) and hydrochloric acid (HCl). The determination of heavy metals in organs and tissues of fish were performed by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer AAS-3 and AAS-3N company "Carl Zeiss" (Jena, Germany).
Findings. The distribution of heavy metals in organs and tissues of sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus L.) of the Dnieper-Bug estuary in the spring of 2016 was characterized by heterogeneity and depended on their physico-chemical properties and functional characteristics of organs and tissues of the investigated fish. The highest quantities copper, zinc and iron are accumulated liver, while manganese and cobalt in gills. Toxic metals (lead and cadmium) are more concentrated in gills, skin and liver. The maximum contents in the tissues and organs of sterlet were observed for iron and zinc, while the minimals ones — for cadmium and cobalt.
Originality. The paper describes the actual data on the contents and peculiarities of heavy metal accumulation in the body of sterlet inhabiting the Dnieper-Bug estuary.
Practical value. The paper contains the newest information on the accumulation and content of heavy metals in organs and tissues of sterlet in the Dnieper-Bug estuary. The results of the work will be used for future comparative and biochemical studies of sterlet populations as well as serve as a basis for further monitoring of chemical contamination of water bodies in Ukraine.
Purpose. To investigate the effect of different types of fertilizers on the formation of hydrochemical regime in rearing ponds.
Methodology. For the study, we used generally accepted hydrochemistry methods. For the overall (total) chemical analysis, water samples were taken two times during the season (at the beginning and at the end of the growing season), a short chemical analysis of water was carried out twice a month.
Findings. The article presents the research results of hydrochemical regime in rearing ponds of the State Enterprise "Nivkа" when applying different types of fertilizers. It was found that hydrochemical regime in experimental rearing ponds was formed under the effect of water supply source and measures aimed at improving the development of the natural food supply (application of cattle manure and microfertilizer "Rostok" Macro). No significant difference was observed between hydrochemical parameters when applying different types of fertilizers. The dynamics of seasonal changes in the basic chemical indicators in both experimental ponds was similar, however, the pond fertilized with manure was characterized by higher values of permanganate oxidation, ammonium and nitrite nitrogen during the entire culture season.
In general, the hydrochemical regime in rearing ponds was satisfactory and suitable for the cultivation of carp seeds when applying either cattle manure or microfertilizer "Rostok" Macro.
Originality. The peculiarities of the formation of the hydrochemical regime of rearing ponds when applying cattle manure and "Rostock" Macro fertilizer have been investigated.
Practical value. The obtained data can be used to develop practical recommendations for the optimization of growing conditions of fish seeds when applying of various types of fertilizers, increasing the efficiency of aquatic ecosystems management and their bioproductivity.
Purpose. The consequence of human impact of the ecosystems of water bodies are as a rule the input of xenobiotics of various natures or the excess of the natural level of biogenic trace elements that ultimately leads to negative changes in the structure of aquatic biota communities, disturbances of vital activity processes of some flora and fauna species. The consequences of these processes are presented as a reduction in the productivity of water bodies, impoverishment of their species variety, and subsequently as an unsuitability of water bodies for fisheries related activities.
Study, analysis and generalization of information concerning the pathways of toxicants input into water bodies, their behavior in hydroecosystems, possible effects on aquatic organisms of different trophic levels have an important theoretical and practical value. Behavioral, physiological, biochemical, cytological, histological and genetic reactions can serve as a basis for the adoption of necessary measures aimed at improving the ecological state of water bodies or preventing and avoiding potential hazards to aquatic populations. The aim of this work is an analysis and synthesis of the available literature data about the role of a relatively poorly studied trace element molybdenum in hydroecosystems, its biological importance and toxic effect for aquatic organisms.
Findings. The data containing in the article were obtained based on reviewing existing publications of domestic and foreign authors. In particular, they describe hydrochemical properties of molybdenum and its compounds, possible sources of input into water bodies, pathways of element migration. A brief description of the identification and control methods for the element content in aquatic environment is presented. Biophilic properties of molybdenum for aquatic flora and fauna as well as the impact on their productive parameters are described. The data regarding the bioaccumulation potential of molybdenum, as well as its distribution in tissues and organs of aquatic organisms are given. The adaptive reactions of aquatic plants, invertebrates and fish in the conditions of elevated molybdenum concentrations in water, the possible adverse effects of such impacts on biota at different levels, in particular on cellular, tissue, whole organism ones are described. The perspectives and theoretic measures of further studies on molybdenum presence and its effect in ecotoxicological aspect are highlighted.
Originality. The article contains a summary of research results carried out since the middle of the last century to the present time, on the role and functions of molybdenum in aquatic ecosystems and organisms of certain species of aquatic biota, information on its eco-toxicity in terms of its excessive input into water bodies..
Practical value. The data presented in the article can be the basis for the adoption of measures for the prevention and avoidance of potential hazards to aquatic populations associated with the input of significant amounts of molybdenum into water bodies in the composition of agricultural runoff and industrial effluents.
Purpose. To analyze scientific and statistical sources on commercial fishery in inland water bodies of Germany. To summarize German experience and identify specific features of this sector.
Findings. Commercial fishery in Germany is carried out on 30% (≈250 000 hectares) of inland water bodies of Germany. The main fishing regions are prealpine lakes in Bavaria, Lake Constance, lakes in Schleswig-Holstein, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania federal states as well as lakes and rivers of Brandenburg and Berlin. Commercial fishing on rivers usually has a local importance and is practiced in regions with poorly developed industry. There were 670 commercial fishing organizations in 2014, where 932 people were employed. Each fishing license owner is allowed deploying simultaneously a clearly defined number of fishing gears depending on season. In addition, fishing nets are regulated not only based on their mesh size and length, but also height and the minimum thread diameter. The cardinal difference of German inland fishing is the absence of the periods of total ban on commercial fishing. There are only ban periods for fishing on certain fish species during their spawning seasons. These periods differ for federal states and are listed in the relevant regional fishing rules. The total fish catch in inland waters of Germany by commercial fishermen in 2014 was 3132 tons, much lower than the catches of anglers who caught 18 450 tons at the same year. Most of fish were caught by fishing organizations in the Brandenburg Federal State. Average fish productivity in 2014 was approx. 13 kg/ha (ranging from 10 to 20 kg/ha). Whitefish was the dominant species in catches in the Lake Constance and prealpine lakes of Bavaria, while cyprinids (roach, bream, silver bream, blue bream, etc.) dominated in Northern Germany. The profit of commercial fish catch in 2014 was about 12.5 million euros. Among numerous activities aimed at preserving commercial fish populations, Germans practice not only the traditional methods of artificial stocking of some valuable fish species, but also shooting of cormorants.
Originality. The review describes and summarizes organizational aspects, regulation, catch amounts and species compositions of commercial fishery in inland water bodies of Germany and some aspects are compared to those practiced in Ukraine.
Practical value. The obtained objective information on the organization of inland fishery in Germany shows the importance of commercial fishery in inland waters as a real sector of economy, which allows creating new working places in rural and touristic regions, contributing to food security and providing the population with high-quality fresh fish products. German experience adapted to Ukrainian conditions may substantially contribute to the real economy sector of Ukraine that is necessary in modern conditions. This can ensure a steady improvement in economic performance and long-term fishery exploitation of inland water bodies. On the contrary, prohibition of commercial fishing in inland waters can result in an increase in the size of shadow economy, reduction in budget revenues and loss of working places that will have quite a negative impact on the welfare of Ukraine. Therefore, a decision on the ban of commercial fishing should be taken based on scientific justification and best international practices and not by intuitive impulses.
Purpose. The most pressing current environmental issues of scientific research include the studies of ecosystems altered by human impact. Aquatic ecosystems are important for the stable functioning of communal, industrial, agricultural and energy sectors. One of the typical examples of human impact on aquatic ecosystems is the transformation of river systems in the cascades of reservoirs. In southern Ukraine, there is a South Ukrainian energy complex, for the optimization of functioning of which the lower part of the Bakshala river was transformed into the Bakshalinske reservoir. The aim of this work was to study the succession of changes that occur in the reservoir using the littoral zooplankton communities as an example. These aquatic organisms are basic ecological group, sensitive to changes in their habitats.
Methodology. When collecting and preserving samples of littoral zooplankton and its subsequent processing and analysis in the laboratory, we used both the standard methods and an original method of the standardization of the selection of monitoring stations depending on the type and size of the reservoir.
Findings. The paper examines the peculiarities of succession processes in a small canyon-shaped Bakshalynske reservoir at different stages of the formation and functioning of its biota. The peculiarities of the succession of zooplanktonic cenoses in this reservoir were investigated by analyzing the changes in species diversity, faunal, ecological and trophic spectra, quantitative indicators, dominant communities and complexes of littoral zooplanktonic species.
Originality. The data on zooplankton and other groups of aquatic organisms for the Bakshalynske reservoir are absent, so all provided data are original and have a scientific novelty. In addition, when collecting the material, we used new methodological approaches regarding the standardization of the selection of monitoring stations depending on the type and size of the reservoir.
Practical value. This work is the only source of information on succession changes caused by the creation of the Bakshalynske reservoir in the lower reaches of the Bakshala River. The reservoir is a part of the Southern energy complex reservoirs. Therefore, the study of the current state of the reservoir ecosystem with the aim of the identification of optimum conditions for their functioning and development, contributes to the energy security of Ukraine.
Purpose. It is know that first attempts of cap culture in ponds started as early as in XIII century. One of oldest strain is Galician carp. Therefore, it is important to highlight the historical development and conditions of the distribution of Galician carp across the territory of Western Ukraine and in European countries.
Findings. We determined the main periods in the development of pond fish culture and its one of main object — carp. Galician carp was first presented at the Agricultural Exhibition in Berlin in 1880 by the farm Kanov, which was located on the territory of Galicia. These carp was characterized by nice flesh properties and relatively early maturation that caused interest in fish farmers. Galician carp was reared in ponds during early stages of aquaculture development, therefore we examined historical information on the use of this group in fish culture.
Few-scaled (mirror) Galicia carp were used not only as a commercial fish as a pure line but also for crossing with other groups of carps for obtaining higher productivity values due to heterozygosis.
Throughout centuries, low level of selection, fish diseases, damages caused by wars resulted in the virtual disappearance of this carp group. Therefore, currently, Galician carp remained in few fish farms of Ukraine and they need further studies in order to be preserved as a native species, which became rare and vanishing.
Originality. This work is a generalization of historical information on the development and establishment of fish culture on the territories, which belonged to Galicia. A special attention is given to Galician carp, which is currently rare and vanishing on the territory of Ukraine. This carp played an important role taking into account their effect when forming Ukrainian strains of carp.
Practical value. This review of historical information on Galician carp can be used during further study of a complex of technical and biological properties of this group of carp in the conditions of both pure line carp culture and for hybridization.
Purpose. The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the effect of the cryoselection of carp sperm of multiple age groups depending on the quality of thawed sperm after modification of the composite cryoprotective medium, which was used for the dilution of native sperm before freezing.
Methodology. Coenzyme B12 (cobamamide), blood plasma of Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio), which was subjected to natural cold-acclimation, and purified protein antifreeze tmAFP isolated from larval mealworm (Tenebrio molitor), which also was subjected to natural cold-acclimation, were sued as modifiers.
Findings. The results of the study demonstrated that qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the defrosted sperm, results of the incubation, rearing of embryos and larvae of Nyvky scaled carp (NLC), as well as fish culture parameters of produced young-of-the-year depended from on the composition of cryoprotective medium. The best results were demonstrated for the experimental groups, obtained with the use of the cryoprotective solution supplemented with purified antifreeze protein tmAFP.
The larvae obtained from the sperm cryopreserved with the addition of cryoprotective medium TmAFP had better resistance to dehydration, surpassing the experimental groups obtained from the modifiers of Prussian carp plasma and cobamamide.
There is a consolidation in the action of the related extracellular cryoprotectors, which were isolated from the cold-resistant organisms. And carp produced with their used demonstrated better performance during their rearing.
The fact can be established that the manifestation of cryoselective effect depends on the integrity of sperm hereditary material and does not depend on the effect of extremely low temperatures on the cell membranes.
Originality. There were the first experiments, where Prussian carp plasma and antifreeze protein tmAFP were used as extracellular cryoprotectors.
Practical value. The modifications of composite cryoprotective media with the use of extracellular cryoprotectants and cobamamide examined in this paper can be recommended for the cryopreservation of carp sperm with a goal to create cryobanks of fish genetic resources as well as for their large scale reproduction.
Purpose. To determine the effect of milk thistle on the intensity of oxidative processes in carp under the conditions of experimental toxic contamination with lead.
Methodology. Experimental works were conducted in laboratory conditions. The object of the study was age-1+ carp, which were divided into three groups of 12–15 fish in each. Carp of the group 1 (intact), which received 3% starch paste through a probe, were used as a control. Carp of the group 2 were kept during a month in water, in which lead salts (PbNO3) were introduced at quantities corresponding to 10 maximum allowable levels calculated as metal ions. Carp of the group 3 during a month were kept in the same environment of dissolved lead salts and received 3% starch paste through a probe together with ground seeds of milk thistle (Silybum marianum) at a quantity of 80 mg/kg of fish body weight.
We examined the effect of milk thistle on lipid peroxidation (LPO) and enzyme activity of antioxidant defense system (ADS) in carp organism under conditions of lead contamination. TBA-active products were assessed baed on the content of products which reacted with 2-thiobarbituric acid (malondialdehyde). The level of oxidative damage to lipids was also evaluated based on the content of accumulated lipid hydroperoxide. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was determined in the reaction of quercetine oxidation. Catalase activity was assessed in the reaction with ammonium molybdate. Numeric data were processed by biometric method of variation nonparametric analysis using Microsoft Excel and Statistica 6.0. Differences between the values were considered statistically significant: p <0.05; 0.01 and 0.001.
Findings. Toxic contamination with heavy metals in conjunction with the physiological stress are the most significant factors, which stimulate the peroxidation and oxidative disorders in the body. This fact was proved in the study using the salts of lead that increased the intensity of the accumulation of intermediate and final products of lipid peroxidation on the background of the decreased activity of antioxidant enzymes. In particular, in liver, kidneys and muscles the content of TBA-active products significantly increased by 26, 24 and 45%, while that of lipid hydroperoxides by 72, 43 and 124%. At the same time the activity of SOD in liver and kidneys of carp significantly decreased by 21 and 55%, respectively. At the same time, the catalase activity decreased to 1.75±0.16 mmol/min•mg of protein (P <0.05) in fish liver and to 0.41±0.04 mmol/min•mg of protein (P<0.05) in kidneys.
It was found that the introduction of milk thistle to the experimental group of carp resulted in significant increase in the activity of SOD and catalase in the studied fish tissues that reduced the intensity of lipid peroxidation in their body.
Originality. For the first time the work shows the effectiveness of milk thistle for correcting the intensity of oxidative processes in carp in the conditions of experimental contamination with lead salts.
Practical value. The use of milk thistle, an efficient, safe and cost-effective way to protect fish organism from toxic effects of human-induced pollution, will allow neutralizing the negative impact of these factors by activating the antioxidant defense system of their organism.
Purpose. Establish and compare the content of the total lipids in the liver, skeletal muscle, gill and brain pond carp active life condition and under artificial hibernation carbon.
Methodology. The experiments were conducted on the Ukrainian scaly carp breed (Cyprinus caprio L.) weighing 250–270 g. To conduct research to form two groups (control — 5 copies of the fish and an experimental — each point hypobiosis exposure to 5 copies of the fish). Introduction of fish hypobiotically state conducted for the use of a patented model artificial hibernation. The selection of material performed by opening the first and second fish group on the 3, 6 and 24 hours of exposure, then it is frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen. Lipid extraction after homogenization of brain tissue, liver, skeletal muscle and gills was performed according to Folch. The content of the total lipids (from the weight of the dry residue) after extraction was determined using the gravimetric method.
The separation into individual lipid fractions were determined thin layer chromatography by plates "Silufol". Quantitative determination of total phospholipids — hydroxamate method; cholesterol — colorimetric method with three ferric chlorides.
All the results are treated variation-statistical method using the Student's t-tests.
Findings. These results suggest that the content of total lipids, phospholipids and cholesterol in the tissues of the carp pond in the active state of life is significantly different.
The content of the total lipids in the liver, skeletal muscle, gill and brain in a carp pond introducing carbon dioxide into a state of artificial hibernation (hypercapnic hypoxia-medium) is reduced in comparison with the control. Under these conditions, noted a slight increase in tissue phospholipids, as well as a significant increase in cholesterol and the coefficient (CL/PL), especially in the liver, indicating that the use of lipids in energy and adaptation processes.
Originality. Lipid composition studied liver, skeletal muscle, gill and brain carp active life condition and carbon dioxide under artificial hibernation. The content of the total lipids in the tissues of the research carp throughout the exposition of artificial hibernation carbon dioxide decreases, indicating that the use of lipids in energy processes. The growth of the content of phospholipids and cholesterol in the tissues of the carp in the conditions of artificial hibernation carbon dioxide leads to the development of adaptive adaptation of organisms to the environment.
Practical value. The results make it possible to assess the redistribution of lipids in fish tissue of the body due to changes in environmental conditions (artificial carbon hibernation).
Purpose. To review scientific sources are about the anatomical, physiological and biochemical characteristics of the digestive system and proper digestion process in the sturgeon species (Acipenseridae). Outline the common anatomical and morphological characteristics of the gastrointestinal tract. Consider the activity of digestive enzymes and the influence of various factors.
Findings. Review of scientific papers reveals that although the digestion of sturgeon are broadly similar to those of the cartilaginous and bony fish, there are a number of species specificity. In particular, sturgeon enzymes have a wider temperature and hydrogen ranges. It is confirmed that temperature adaptations of digestive system poikilothermic organ-isms are realised mainly thanks to reorganisations of fermental systems. It is shown that enzymes in sturgeons are adjustable, as their activity level significantly changes under the influence of divalent metal ions (Mn2+, Fe2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+). The assumption that evolutionary adaptation of hydrolytic function of intestines of fishes to temperature conditions of an inhabitancy takes place, apparently, is made. The paper describes the effect of sex and age factors on the level of activity of enzymes of sturgeons. Set out the regularities of circadian rhythms of the fish of this family. Showed specific features of the liver and its involvement in lipid metabolism and antioxidant defense system.
Practical value. The knowledge of hydrolysis characteristics of a diet of sturgeon species is important for the efficiency estimation of feeding and understanding of evolutionary and ecological aspects of digestion physiology. Systematized data on the digestive system of fish sturgeon species are of interest a wide range of research in two main areas. Firstly, although the sturgeon are relict species, but the adaptation of their digestive system is still going on, allowing you to analyze the evolutionary development of the species. Secondly, the digestive system of sturgeon species in their structure is close to a tailless amphibians, differing cartilaginous and bony fishes. Generalized mass of information will be important for scientists studying the features of feeding of sturgeon species, their adaptation devices and biochemical features.