Purpose. Definition and analysis of biological criteria for qualified materiality harm caused by the fishing industry as a result of illegal extraction of water biological resources.
Methodology. The calculations were carried out for the top of the Kanev reservoir and were based on data from the Water of Life reserves the Kanev reservoir identified Institute of Fisheries NAAS within acceptable elaboration of industrial catches for 2013 year. Index of an average natural mortality were determined by the method of P.V. Tyurin. In the calculations indicators used listed in the acting regulatory and technical literature.
Findings. As a criterion for determining the materiality of damage used daily natural mortality rate, which is accepted at 0,1 % of the balance. It is established that for certain types of top of the Kanev reservoir extraction already 1 ind., can lead to consequences that are assessed as significant. However, the simultaneous extraction of several species in an amount which is less than the limit also requires evaluation from the standpoint of materiality. To this end, proposed criterion is expensive - in calculating losses greater than 266 tax-free minimum incomes of citizens, damage fisheries can be considered significant.
Originality. First proposed procedure for assessing the impact on the ichthyopopulation of illegal fishing from the standpoint of materiality damage.
Practical value. The results are used in the preparation of expert reports for regulatory environmental agencies.
Keywords: ichthyofauna, natural mortality, illegal removal, harm to fisheries.
Purpose. Study of distribution of invasive stone moroko (Pseudorasbora parva) in the Dneprodzerzhinsk reservoir depending on the biotope.
Methodology. Fish were captured in the littoral zone using beach seine. Bottom substrate type and vegetation density were recorded at each sampling site. Following indices were calculated: relative fish abundance in the catch, frequency of occurrence, CPUE. ANOVA was used for finding difference among CPUE values on different substrates and vegetation densities. T-test was used for pairwise comparisons of CPUE values on different substrates and vegetation densities. Selectivity or avoidance of substrate type or vegetation density was assessed with the aid of Ivlev’s selectivity index. Association between stone moroko abundance and other fish species was tested using linear regression.
Findings. Stone moroko composed 2,3 % (2011 y.) and 7,3 % (2012 y.) of catches, average frequency of occurrence ― 54,0%, mean CPUE ― 29.3 fish/100 m2. The highest abundance of stone moroko was observed on sand+shells (71,5 fish/ m2) followed by sand (42,9 fish/100 m2) and clay (3,2 fish/m2), while the lowest abundance was on stones (1,1 fish/100 m2). As for macrophytes, the highest abundance was observed on sites with medium vegetation density (52.5 fish/100 m2), while the least abundance on sites without vegetation (8,2 fish/100 m2). Stone moroko preferred sand and shells and avoided stones. It also preferred medium vegetation density and avoided dense vegetation and sites without vegetation.
Originality. Selectivity of stone moroko towards bottom substrate and vegetation density in the Dneprodzerzhinsk reservoir was investigated for the first time.
Practical value. Stone moroko can compete with juveniles of valuable commercial fishes and on the other hand it can play important role in diets of piscivorous fishes. Taking into account general trend for increasing vegetated areas of the Dnieper reservoirs, abundance of this species will increase further.
Key words: stone moroko, Dneprodzerzhinsk reservoir, invasive species, biotope, substrate.
Purpose. Establishing change the basic structural and functional characteristics of the sediments under the influence of waste going fish farming in tanks.
Methodology. Bottom sediment samples were collected using a 1 m of dirt tube (SOI-1), according to the standard requirements. Water-physical properties of sediments were investigated in accordance the recommendations of B. Novikov (1985) and A. Denisova et al. (1987). Determination of the gross content of organic matter carried by loss after calcining. Oxygen consumption in sediments was studied by the method V. І. Romanenko and V. A. Romanenko (1969). Determination of the amount of sediments, which are formed from waste fish farming, carried out in two different ways: by calculating the income from tanks suspended solids and by direct determination of the sediment under the tanks.
Findings. Was established that intensive fish farming waste flow predetermines a significant (up to 4) increase the organic matter content. Thus, even 2 years after the reduction of volumes of fish farming tanks and even remove volumetric mass of the skeleton to the initial values of deposits are not refundable. The concentration of organic substances in the zone of the tanks lines causes increased intake of dissolved oxygen, which leads to deterioration in gas mode, especially in the bottom layers of water and may cause suffocation situations. According to our research, the role of tanks lines in shaping total volume of sediment rather low (up to 2%), but their effect on the structural characteristics of sediments allows to evaluate the role of this activity in the overall balance of production-destruction processes as significant.
Originality. Was first quantified the role of fish farming in tanks on the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of sediments cooling ponds Zmievsk TPР and Kursk NPP.
Practical value. The results will be used in the development of water conservation measures in the integrated use of cooling ponds TPР and NPP.
Keywords: the basin - cooler, fish farming in tanks, sediments, oxygen regime.
Purpose. Analysis of the main population parameters of horse mackerel caught in different areas of the Black Sea in 2011 - 2013.
Methodology. Individuals of the Mediterranean horse mackerel (Trachurus mediterraneus Staindachner, 1868) were caught by bottom traps in the coastal area of Sevastopol, as well as by trawls in areas of the South Coast, Alushta-Sudak, cape Takil from 2011 to 2013. The ichthiological data for Balaklavskaya and Sevastopolskaya (including Peschanaya, Karantinnaya, Alexandrovskaya bays, an open area in front of Karantinnaya and Peschanaya bays) bays were separated. Size and weight of fish, sex and stage of maturity were examined. Age of horse mackerel were determined using otoliths.
Findings. Based on the analysis of the size-mass, sex and age structure of Trachurus mediterraneus Staindachner caught in different areas of the Black Sea we can conclude that near Sevastopol and Balaklava, two distinct groups T. mediterraneus are inhabiting but relate to one northern herd. Study of autumn-winter catches of horse mackerel in the areas of the southern coast of Crimea, Sudak - Alushta and cape Takil allowed to see different distribution of fish of different ages and size-weight characteristics that mainly due to seasonal migration of this specie.
Originality. It is first study of population parameters of adult specimens of horse mackerel in the various areas of the Black Sea in the modern period.
Practical value. The Black Sea horse mackerel is a mass commercial specie of fish, as well as a food of predators of Black Sea. Scientific monitoring of this specie is important in view of the fact that the herds of horse mackerel in the Black Sea has still not recovered.
Keywords: Black Sea horse mackerel, population, size, weight, sex, age.
Purpose. To explore effect of environmental conditions, the level of development of natural food base and feeding of cultivated fodder zooplankton on tribal fingerlings Lyubinsky scaly carp growth.
Methodology. The development of natural food base of nursery ponds stimulated bymaking compost from cattle at 4 t/ha and the introduction of the mother culture of Daphnia magna at 2 kg/ha. In the experimental pond in July was introduced of 60 kg/ha of zooplankton caught in the pond-cultivator which is based on daphnia magna, also in this pond daphnia magna cultured in corf of nylon sieve, allowing fingerlings carp in July – August, was suckled by 5 kg/ha of water fleas. the growth of carp fingerlings were determined by regular check-caughting and analyzed, taking into account environmental conditions, availability of natural food and feeding characteristics.
Findings. Prior to the beginning feeding carp fingerlings of average daily increments were higher by 10 % under the best of natural food base pond. In July, when feeding carp fry feed cereal, the introduction of zooplankton contributed to their highest intensity on 46,8 – 88,4 % growth, while the average daily growth rates ranged between 0,4 – 1,0 g. In August, average daily growth decreased from 0,44 – 0,57 g in the first decade to 0,17 g in the third decade. For unstable oxygen regime, which was observed when the temperature of the water and the accumulation of organic matter, the rate of growth of fingerlings decreased.
Originality. First studied the growth rate of breeding fingerlings carp provided they are feeding zooplankton, as well as, the influence of environmental factors, the state of development of natural food base and feed composition on the growth of of fingerlings. Found that under favorable environmental conditions, feeding carp fingerlings on zooplankton in the amount of 2 kg/ha/day when feeding grain feed increases the absolute daily gain on 46,8 – 88,4 %, and the relative ― on 25,7 – 50,9 %.
Practical value. To increase the growth rate of carp fingerlings and feed efficiency of feed grains is recommended fertilizing cultivated their zooplankton, for which the use of breeding ponds and corf cultivators of nylon sieve or polyamides fabrics set in the nursery ponds.
Keywords: growth rate, breeding fingerlings carp, introduction, natural food base.
Purpose. The goal of this work was the selection of microsatellite markers to study the genetic structure of populations of silver and bighead carps of fish farm JSC "Donrybkombinat" of Donetsk region.
Methodology. Products of amplification were separated in 2 % agarose gel in 1×TBE buffer. Visualization was performed with help of transilluminator in UV-region of the spectrum and photographing of electrophoregrams by digital camera. Processing and analysis of gels were performed using program TotalLab v2.01. The frequency of each amplicon by particular locus was determined as a percentage from the total number of amplicons at this locus. Statistical analysis of results was carried out using programs Excel, «Biosys-1».
Findings. At the results of investigations of populations silver carp and bighead carp were analyzed genotypes of individuals by using three microsatellite DNA loci: MFW 15, MFW 23, MFW 06.
Originality. It has been first shown that to investigate genetic structure of Ukrainian silver and bighead carps of JSC "Donrybkombinat" the most informative microsatellite loci were MFW 15 and MFW 23.
Practical value. Microsatellite loci MFW 15 and MFW 23 used in research were suitable for interspecies differentiation of Ukrainian silver and bighead carps and can be applied in population-genetic investigations of fishes.
Key words: silver carp, bighead carp, microsatellite loci.
Purpose. Definition fish productivity of the experimental ponds, fixed set of chemical parameters, that are specific to the environmental condition of water, which is the process of growing fish in a certain relation to it, and the level of accumulation of heavy metals in different organs and tissues of carp.
Methodology. The ponds was three breed groups one-years carp average weight 39,7 g (hybrid of carp and wild carp, crossbreed frames carp, lyubin scaly carp) with planting density 1000 ind./ha. Control group of carp was fed extruded feed containing 20 % protein, and research group ― the same feed, which was added in the manufacturing process, chopped dried Echinacea purpurea in the amount of 1 %. The duration of the experiment was 86 days. Definition of hydro-chemical parameters was performed by standard methods in analytical chemistry. Quantitative determination of the concentration of heavy metals in water and the organs and tissues of fish was performed by direct absorption solution in propane- butane- air flames using absorption spectrophotometer C- 115- M1.
Findings. It was reviewed ecological status of water bodies. Found that when used in feeding carp Echinacea purpurea increased fish productivity, reduced cost of feed for growing. Chemical composition of experimental ponds water, while virtually unchanged. The comparative characteristics of heavy metals in organs and tissues carp in this part of the diet.
Originality. At first time investigated the influence of Echinacea purpurea by adding it to feed on fish productivity, accumulation and distribution of heavy metals in organs and tissues of carp.
Practical value. Fish productivity in the experimental ponds was higher by 20,4 % relative to control. Costs of feed per pound of gain decreased by 13,3 % when was used in fish feeding chopped dried Echinacea purpurea. Almost all metals accumulated in the organs and tissues of experimental groups of carp in a somewhat lesser extent.
Keywords: Echinacea purpurea, heavy metals, fish productivity, scaly and frame carp, carp hybrids, hydro-chemical regime.
Purpose.The object of investigation constituted the influence of vital plant discharges of C. demersum on the pathogenic bacteria population density.
Methodology. Aqueous solutions secretions of C. demersum were sterilized by vacuum filtration through the filters with pore diameter of 0,2 microns. After adding E. rhusiopathiae or L. interrogans, the samples under study contained the secretions of C. demersum fluitans in 1:10, 1:100, 1:1000 and 1:10000 dilutions. As a method of control, sterile water from the water supply was used in a volume similar to the samples, in which the same amount of bacterial was added. After a 48-hour exposure, the test samples were taken to determine the density of bacterial populations. The discharges of C. demersum in dissolution 1:10 and 1:100 stimulated the growth in population E. rhusiopathia bacteria. In the following dissolution 1:1000, 1:10000 any considerable influence on the bacteria population hasn’t been noticed.
Findings. Under influence of dissolution of C. demersum, the density of the L. interrogans population in the investigated serological variants varied. Under natural conditions a topical type of biocoenotic relations is being formed between plant and bacteria.
Originality. Environmental relations of E. rhusiopathiae and L. interrogans with water plant C. demersum have been studied for the first time.
Practical value. E. rhusiopathiae and L. interrogans bacteria are able to cause human and animal diseases, penetrating into their organisms from ground and water. To some extent, the lifespan of erysipelothrixes and leptospira in water depends on the ecological relationships with various components of phytocenoses, including plants C. demersum
Key words: Ceratophyllum demersum, vital discharges, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, Leptospira interrogans, topical biocoenotic relations.
Purpose. To analyze production of fish and fish products in Ukraine and to determine aspects pg successful functioning of fish products at internal market of Ukraine.
Methods. Analysis of fish and fish products in Ukraine was conducted using methods generally accepted in economy. Variants of forecasted demand-proposition balances were calculated oriented at forecasted data of the “State purpose-oriented economical program of fish industry development for 2012-2016”. For composing forecasted demand-proposition balances for fish products, we used a methodological approach based on the “Method for composing demand and proposition balances of agricultural products and food supplies” according to generally accepted international scheme.
Findings. The studies demonstrated that the tendency of fish harvest amounts reduction in Ukraine continued. E.g., according to the State Statistics Service, during the period of 2008-2012, fish catches dropped from 224.2 thousand tons to 203.9 thousand tons or by 9.1%, and by 3.4% compared to the previous year 2011 that is 96.6% of the catch of 2011. The analysis demonstrated that production of fish products in Ukraine in 2012 was 148.18 thousand tons. During last five years, amounts of their production dropped by 25.3%.It was estimated that supply of domestic food fish products for population of Ukraine during last 5 years was on average about 4 kg per capita. The deficiency of domestic production was covered by import. It was found that per capita consumption of fish and fish products in Ukraine for 5 last years dropped from 17.5 kg in 2008 to 13.6 kg in 2012 that first of all was due to decrease of fish and fish products import to Ukraine from 581.6 thousand tons in 2008 to 439.8 thousand tons in 2012. Despite decrease of amounts of fish and fish products imported to Ukraine, its part in internal consumption fund of these products remains high enough and is at the level of 71.0% with a 30% threshold criterion of food independence indicator.The studies demonstrated that decrease of average per capita consumption resulted in reduction of internal market capacity. E.g., during last 5 years, the internal market capacity dropped from 810.8 thousand tons in 2008 to 620.1 thousand tons in 2012 or by 23.6%.It was found that a necessary condition for successful functioning of fish product market was formation of an optimum demand-proposition balance and its forecasting for future periods. We presented three variants of forecasted demand-proposition balances for 2016. In our opinion, the closest approximation to the true state will be the third variant, estimations of which indicate on possible increase of fish product consumption up to 17 kg per capita. The part of import in the consumption fund will be 61.4%.
Key words: production of fish products, per capita consumption, internal market capacity, forecasted demand-proposition balances.
Purpose. Study and analysis of indices, which characterize growth of European grayling (Thymallus thymallus) in Transcarpathian rivers in current time.
Methodology. Fish were caught on riffles using dip nets and fly fishing gears. Size and weight indices of European grayling were measures partially on alive fish, but the majority of fish were preserved in 10% formalin solution. For preventing traumatization, fish were anesthetized using “Propiscine”. Preserved material was processed in laboratory conditions based on standard methods (Chugunova, 1959; Pravdin, 1966). Condition factor was determined based on Fulton’s formula. Back calculation of linear growth was performed using Lea technique. Reconstruction of growth of previous years was determined by measuring the anterior edge of fish scale diagonal radius.
Findings. In samples of 2008, age-3 fish dominated (84 % of total catch), age-2+ and age-4 fish were caught in small quantities (both 8 %). Based on the results of studies for 2012, grayling age composition was characterized somewhat other indices. A clear prevalence of the number of age-2 fish was established (67 %), portions of other age groups (yearlings, age-3 fish) were significantly lower: 15 % and 18 %, respectively. Mean indices of linear growth of grayling (by age classes) fluctuated within 9,9 cm to 27,2 cm. Weight indices in our studies were from 12,3 g to 233,5 g. Results of European grayling growth reconstruction from Transcarpathian rivers in 2012 and 2008 demonstrated that maximum growth gain typical for the first year remained also high on the second year, however it decreased on the third year.
Originality. For the first time, growth rate of European grayling from Transcarpathian rivers was studied using Lea back calculation based on fish scales reconstruction.
Practical value. The obtained results are the component of biological rationale of measures for artificial propagation of European grayling in Transcarpathian rivers.
Key words: European grayling, linear and weight growth, growth gain, Transcarpatian region.