Purpose. To analyze permanent negative effect from transformation of riverine hydroecosystems on fish fauna of Azov-Black Sea Basin.
Methodology. Materials on the abiotic parameters of hydro river, according to information received by the regional meteorological stations and their own observations. Industrial situation analyzed by official reports Statefishagency of Ukraine.
Findings. The studies demonstrate that there is a gradual process of an increase of the number of components, which virtually exclude the significance of positive results of self-purification by natural way, in water mass of transformed riverine systems. Spontaneous fluctuation of water level, which is caused by volumes of daily discharges, often instantly changes water levels on spawning areas. Fertilized fish eggs is periodically flooded or periodically dried, aeration regime changes that results in mass fish kills at different stages and phases of embryogenesis. Ecological situation of transformed hydroecosystems demonstrates coupling of negative effect of hydrological regime autostaticity in time and space, deterioration of water chemical composition. There is a permanent trend of saturation of water with components, which are not natural that results in doubtfulness of effective reproduction puts in question the possibility of stable state of valuable commercial fish stocks. At the same time, transformed water areas of riverine hydroecosystems have high bioproductive potential, which having its own food resource, is ineffectively transformed into food base for valuable commercial fish species.
Against the background of noted changes, the considered water areas lost their suitability of providing effective reproduction. As a consequence, primary valuable fish species form low-yield generations and this is reflected on qualitative indices of commercial fishing. There was found a permanent trend of sufficiently fast change of the ratio of valuable and low-valuable species in favor of low-valuable ones.
Originality. Conducted systematic generalization of the impact construction on state fisheries natural reservoirs of Ukraine as an example of the Dnieper.
Practical value. The results can be used to develop ways of rational use of Hydrobiological river systems of Ukraine in terms of the transformed flow.
Keywords: hydroecosystems transformed, spawning, bioproduction potential fishing, semi-anadromous, communicating kinds of fish fodder resource ihtio-weight.
Purpose. To study ecological relationships between the pathogenic bacteria Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae and Riccia fluitans.
Methodology. Aqueous solutions of in vivo and post-lethal secretions of R.fluitans were sterilized by vacuum filtration through filters with pore diameter of 0.2 microns. After adding E. rhusiopathiae, the samples under study contained the secretions of Riccia fluitans in 1:10, 1:100, 1:1000 and 1:10000 dilutions. As a control, sterile tap water was used in a volume similar to the samples, in which the same amount of E. rhusiopathiae was added. After a 48-hour exposure, the test samples were taken to determine the density of bacterial populations.
Findings. The substances, emitted by R. fluitans during the active growing period, are capable of producing a stimulating effect on E. rhusiopathiae populations only in low dilutions.
As a result of degradation processes taking place after the death of R. fluitans, there is a production of substances, which E. rhusiopathiae bacteria can actively use to increase their density in the medium. In hydrobiocenoses, R. fluitans and E. rhusiopathiae form topical-type biotic relations; as a result, erysipelothrixes find favorable conditions to exist in thickets of this plant throughout the year.
Originality. Environmental relations of E. rhusiopathiae with aquatic plant R. fluitans have been studied for the first time.
Practical value. Pathogenic bacteria E. rhusiopathiae, being a part of freshwater ecosystems, can threaten humans and animals with infection. The environmental factors that influence the quantity and existence of erysipelothrix in reservoirs have important epidemiological and epizootic significance.
Key words: Riccia fluitans, in vivo and post-lethal secretions, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, stimulating effect, environmental relations.
Purpose. To investigate the effect of brewer᾽s grains on formation of hydrochemical regime, development of natural forage base, and fish productivity in nursery ponds.
Methodology. Generally accepted methods for hydrochemistry, hydrobiology and fish farming have been used. For general (full) chemical analysis, water samples were taken 2 times a season (at the beginning and end of the growing season), a short chemical analysis of water was conducted twice a month. Hydrobiological samples (phytoplankton, zooplankton, zoobenthos) were collected before and after the application of organic fertilizers and throughout the growing season 2-3 times a month.
Findings. The article summarizes the results of studies conducted during 2007-2009 devoted to the use of different doses and schemes of application of brewer’s grains in nursery ponds. Effects of brewers’ grains of hydrochemical regime, development of natural food base (phyto-, zooplankton, zoobenthos) and fish productivity in nursery ponds have been studied. It was found that the brewer᾽s grains stimulates the development of natural forage base for juvenile fish and can be an alternative to traditional organic fertilizers ― humus. Adding of brewers’ grains (dry matter content of 29,4 %) to the nursery ponds at the rate of 2,0 t/ha (once or twice during the growing season) ensured the development of phytoplankton to 33,52 dm3, zooplankton ― up to 37,97 g/m3, benthos ― up to 3,43 g/m2. Fish productivity in nursery ponds production reached 736,3 – 754,6 kg/ha.
Originality. Peculiarities of formation of hydrochemical regime and development of phyto-, zooplankton, and zoobenthos have been studied for the first time when using wastes of the brewery industry – brewer’s grains for fertilization of nursery ponds. It was found that brewer᾽s grains contribute to an increase of the development of natural forage base and fish productivity in ponds.
Practical Value. Based on these results, it was proposed to put into practice the use of pond fish brewer᾽s grain, as non-traditional organic fertilizers, to stimulate the development of natural forage base nursery in ponds to enhance their fish productivity.
Keywords: brewer᾽s grain, natural forage base, phytoplankton, zooplankton, zoobenthos, nursery ponds, carp fingerlings, fish productivity.
Purpose. Evaluation of structural‐biological indices, which characterize the state of the Dniprodzerzhinsk reservoir from the point of view of conditions of formation and exploitation of commercial fish stocks.
Methodology. Field data were collected during 2013 using a standard set of control fishing gears (gill nets with mesh size a = 30 – 120 mm). Processing of ichthyological materials was conducted according to methods generally accepted for the Dnieper reservoirs. In total, 148 net‐days of control gill nets were analyzed, of which 1051 fish were selected.
Findings. Structural indices of the Dniprodzerzhinsk reservoir biocenoses was characterized by certain stability, the basis of ichthyofauna (46,6 % of the general ichthyofauna) is formed by bream represented in catches primarily by age‐6 – 9 fish, i.e. the modal range of this species remains stable. A negative trend of shortening of elder age groups is observed for roach that resulted in a decrease of weighted average age to 4,6 years. Similar trend is also observed for pike‐perch, however, high indices of catches of mean age groups indicate on entrance of abundant generations to the reproductive core. Total ichthyomass of commercial fish species (without taking into account Black Sea sprat) in 2013 can be estimated as 70,4 kg/ha.
Originality. For the first time during last 20 years, general description of the Dniprodzerzhinsk reservoir ichthyofauna has been presented and main qualitative and quantitative indices, which determined conditions of formation and exploitation of commercial fish stocks, have been analyzed.
Practical value. Results of this work have been used for determination of allowed amounts of commercial catch in the Dniprodzerzhinsk reservoir.
Key words: Dniprodzerzhinsk reservoir, ichthyofauna, population age structure, commercial fish stocks.
Purpose. Environmental - faunal studies of juvenile fish in the littoral zone of the reservoir, study of changes in species composition and behavior of juvenile fish depending on various environmental factors.
Methodology. An integrated monitoring studies of spatial - temporal distribution of juvenile fish were performed within 14 research stations of the Kiev reservoir, according to the methodological developments of V. Trohimtsya. The material was collected with a juvenile fish beach seine of 4 m long and 1 m high and "ACT" traps. Species were identified using a fish guide specially developed for the analysis of Dnieper River species composition. Material processing was performed in the field and in laboratory conditions according to generally accepted methods. The similarity of the species lists of various stations was determined by Jaccard’s indexes.
Findings. Dominant and rare representatives of the littoral fish fauna of the Kanev reservoir have been determined. The effect of vegetation density degree and depth on the spatial - temporal distribution of juvenile fish in the different periods of the year has been found. The relationship between the depth of the "AST" traps and fish fry catch has been found. It is shown that in the morning fry moved to the shore in search of food (53.8 %), and at night it actively moved away from the shore (44,4 %) that was associated with a decrease of water temperature in the littoral zone.
Originality. The relationship between the spatial and temporal distribution and species composition of the juvenile fish of the littoral zone of the Kanev Reservoir has been investigated taking into account the effect of dominating species on habitats, in the dynamics during three years.
Practical value. The conducted studies give an idea about peculiarities of species composition and spatial - temporal distribution of juvenile fish in the littoral zone of the Kanev reservoir. The results allow predicting further changes in fish abundance and future catches.
Keywords: species composition, distribution, juvenile fish, "AST" trap, littoral habitat, Jaccard’s index, Kanev Reservoir.
Purpose. Characterization of bacteria and zooplankton in rearing ponds using traditional fertilizers: cattle manure and bird droppings in modern conditions for fish farming.
Methodology. Material collection and processing were carried out according to conventional hydrochemical and hydrobiological methods.
Findings. We consider forming of bacteria and zooplankton component of natural food base of Irkliiv herbivorous fish nursery rearing ponds under the influenced of traditional organic fertilizers such as bird droppings (0,12 t/ha) and cattle manure (2,0 t/ha). Each pond was planted by ongrowing Nyvka carp larvae (40,0 thousand ind./ha) with silver carp (1,0 thousand ind./ha) and grass carp larvae (1,0 thousand ind./ha). Qualitative and quantitative development of bacteria and zooplankton in fish-breeding ponds was investigated. The results show that in the development of the studied invertebrate groups of zooplankton in production ponds had no significant differences, except for rotifers, which group prevailed by the biomass to 3,6 times in the pond with the introduction of humus.
Originality. The parameters of bacteria and zooplankton by the application of traditional organic fertilizers at present fish farming are studied.
Practical value. These quantitative indicators of bacteria and zooplankton of fish-rearing ponds with water supply from Kremenchug reservoir, the application of cattle manure and bird droppings could be offered as an optimum data at present fish production stage.
Keywords: bacterioplankton, zooplankton, bird droppings, cattle manure.
Purpose. To analyse the nucleotide sequences of salmonids Y chromosome and to determine the fragment for specific primers selection and also to develop the PCR based method for sex determination in huchen H. hucho.
Methodology. Using the ClustalW algorithm in MEGA 5.2, the nucleotide sequences of salmonids Y chromosome were analysed. For developing of method for rapid diagnostic of huchen sex the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was used. Tne nucleotide sequences of amplified products were investigated by sequencing.
Findings. Using PCR assay the method of sex determination in huchen H. hucho was developed. It was shown that specific PCR products in size of 450 nucleotides were visible in huchen males only. In addition we showed that selected primers can be used in sex determination of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and this fact is proved the high rate of sdY locus similarity and its wide destribution in salmonids.
Originality. The nucleotide sequences of salmonids Y chromosome were analysed and highly conservative region of sdY locus for specific primers selection, which covers sex-linked marker, was identified.
Practical Value. Rapid sex determination in huchen by the developed method will allow to identify reversal males in process of gormonal sex reversion. At the stage of reversal males screening, this method will allow to identify the genotypic males (XY) in experimental group and discard them because only phenotypic males with XX genotype (reversal males) must be used in the crosses with native femelas for getting of 100 % all-females stock.
Key words: huchen, sexually dimorphic locus, PCR, sex reversal
Purpose. To study morphometric and morpho-physiological characteristics of percids from geographically separated areas and select the integrated indices of these fish, which characterize the ecological status of the individual water bodies.
Methods. Fish were caught by net and angling fishing gears. Morphometric analysis of fish was performed for 19 plastic and 6 meristic features. For mathematical treatment, plastic features were equated with fish body length, while dimensions of the head with the length of the head. Comparison of mean values was performed using Student’s t-test. Indices for internal organs were assessed by equating weight of organs to fish body weight.
Results. A comparative characteristic of morphological indices of percids is presented for different water bodies. Based on the difference of plastic and meristic features, it was shown that the studied perch belonged to isolated populations. Significant differences in body length, weight and hepatic index were found that was related to environmental conditions in which perch exist. Based on fish condition factor values, it was found that the best conditions for foraging were in the studied stretch of the Ross river. Also found that pike-perch had insignificant phenotypic variability in morphology
Originality. Percid populations of the Ross River, Dnieper River (Vita River delta), Kirillovskoe and Babino lakes were studied based on morphometric and morphophysiological features. The differences between percid populations indicate on its environmental polyvalence.
The practical value. Dispite on adaptation of perch to different environmental conditions, its physiological status may be used as one of criteria for assessing the ecological state of ecosystem.
Key words: perch, pike-perch, population, isolation, morpho-metric parameters and the environmental factor
Purpose. To perform determination of the content of individual lipid peroxidation products in hepatopancreas tissues and skeletal muscle of carp of different genesis.
Methods. Determination of free radical products of lipid peroxidation in hepatopancreas tissues of and skeletal muscle of carp was performed by spectrophotometric analysis. In particular, the content of malondialdehyde was determined by reaction with thiobarbituric acid, which at high a temperature in acidic medium proceeds with the formation of colored trimethine complex. The intensity of the formation of lipid hydroperoxides was determined after precipitation of proteins by a solution of trichloroacetic acid and lipid extraction by ethanol with following interaction of the studied extracts of ammonium thiocyanate. To determine the content of diene conjugates in tissues, we used a method, which is based on the formation of conjugated double bonds accompanied by the appearance of a new absorption maximum in the spectrum range of λmax = 233 nm.
The results. As a result of the studies it was found that the content of malondialdehyde in skeletal muscle of two-year scaly and framed carp of Nesvich zonal type is likely lower in comparison with that of skeletal muscle of Amur wild carp and the carp hybrid grows relatively group - hybrid carp .It was marked the growth in the content of diene conjugates in skeletal muscle of Lyubin Nesvich scaly carp compared to framed ones.It was shown the tissue specificity savings to individual products of lipid peroxidation in experimental groups of fish.
The scientific novelty. For the first time, a comparative analysis of the contents of individual products of free radical oxidation in tissues of age-2 scaly carp and framed Nesvich zonal and Lyubin interbreed type with groups such as the Amur wild carp and carp hybrid has been perfomed. Factors providing such intensity of lipid peroxidation processes in tissues of the studied age-2 groups of fish have been characterized.
The practical significance. Comparative analysis of the course of free radical peroxidation processes clearly reflects the level of individual adaptive capacities of different groups of fish. The results of these studies can be used to monitor the physiological state of raised fish as a quality criterion of management level. And also for the improvement of the latter to minimumize the risk of oxidative stress in the organism of raised fish.
Keywords: carp of various genesis, free radicals, lipid peroxidation, malonic dialdehyde, lipid hydroperoxides, diene conjugates.
Purpose. Influence of various factors on the quality of animal products encourages the search for new alternative methods to increase productivity. It is therefore important to study dietary supplements of plant origin, which are characterized by a wide range of action, low toxicity, high content of biologically active substances and a positive effect on the immune system. Currently, milk thistle, which is one of the most studied herbal medicines in hematology, is widely used in medicine. An interest to this plant, the seeds of which contains about 200 different active components and products created on the basis, is growing. A rare biologically active substance – silymarin was found in milk thistle fruits. It is due to the content of silymarin that is provides exceptional therapeutic effect. Preparations from the seeds of milk thistle have hepatoprotective, deintoksichny, inflammatory, hemostatic, immunomodulatory, antioxidant and other properties that normalize hepatic function, biliary tracts, spleen and other organs under pathological conditions.
Methods. The object of research was milk thistle, material for research - data on its impact on different animal species, particularly their physiology and biochemistry. Also in the study we used normative reference data, specific surveys, the information data from the Internet and so on.
Findings. The use of drugs of milk thistle in veterinary and animal science confirms the mechanism of action of this medicinal plant, which has a positive effect on performance providing 100 % yield, increasing daily weight gain, prophylactic and general health (especially that of the digestive system), relieves the stress, which is important for obtaining high-quality products.
Originality. Milk thistle does not grow on natural conditions of the forest-steppe zone of Ukraine, therefore, for obtaining herbal raw material, it should ne purposefully cultivated. Recently milk thistle actively began to be grown in gardens, grounds and fields of agricultural enterprises in Ukraine as a medicinal plant.
Practical Value. Based on unique pharmacological properties and nutritional value of milk thistle, relevant and appropriate is its further studies and application in aquaculture.
Keywords: milk thistle, silymarin , liver, hepatoprotector , immunomodulator , animals.