Purpose. The study the biodiversity and structural organization of invertebrate macrofauna of the Teremkivsky-3 pond of the river Nyvka, seasonal dynamics and of parameters and determination of pond ecological state and water pollution level based on the calculation of biotic indices.
Methodology. The study of invertebrate macrofauna of the Teremkivsky-3 pond was performed during the vegetation season of 2005 (April, July, September). The study was carried out using standard hydroecological techniques with the use of main provisions of the Water Framework Directive of the European Community. In total, 34 quantitative and qualitative samples were collected, which were used for the determination of the structural characteristics of the macrofauna of phytophylous and periphyton invertebrates and following indices were calculated: Shannon diversity index, Woodiwiss index, the degree of the development of macrofauna communities and water saprobity based on indicator species .
Findings. The pond Teremkivsky-3 is characterized by relatively high development of submerged aquatic vegetation, especially in summer and autumn, mainly in the coastal zone, a large sandy beach in the central part of the reservoir and a relatively shallow depth (in our studies up to 3 m). A moderate overgrowth of submerged aquatic vegetation stimulates the processes of self-purification of the lake, provides additional shelter for many species of aquatic invertebrates and thus contributes to their development. The worst structural characteristics were recorded for bottom macrofauna of the central part of the lake, where black silty soils with admixtures of detritus and residues were located. Species diversity indices of all three studied biotic communities (zoobenthos, zooperiphyton zoophythos) were similar, quantitative parameters were characterized by relatively high biomass, mainly due to the development of gastropods. Based on the saprobity, water in the lake was characterized as β–α-mezosaprobic. Based on TBI calculated based on the total macrofauna, lake water belonged to the category of "slightly contaminated" in the spring to "clean" and "clean enough" in the summer and fall, respectively.
Originality. The studies of the structural organization of benthic, periphyton and phytophylous complexes of the Teremkivsky-3 pond based on quantitative parameters have been conducted and the ecological state of both individual groups of aquatic organisms and total macrofauna of the water body has been determined. The use of similarity indices allowed assessing the degree of species similarity of these macroinvertebrate groups and the originality assessment of each community type has been performed.
Practical value. Determining the environmental state of one of the ponds of the city of Kyiv will allow scientists to compare and track the status of other local water bodies in the dynamics of urban waters.
Purpose. The development of the technology of the controlled rearing of marine fish remains one of the priority strategic trends of development of national mariculture. A study of the possibility of using polyculture for cage culture has a particular interest. Joint cultivation of several species of fish in the same cage, as practice of fish farming has demonstrated, does not have a tangible positive effect. At the same time, the use of cages of special design can provide significant additional fish products through the use of additional aquaculture objects. The ecological state of water areas, where the cages are located, is of great importance. High fish stocking density and the use of artificial feeds can serve as a source of powerful biogenic and organic pollution, which is especially important for shallow water areas with weak water exchange.
The purpose of the study is to develop the methods for joint fish production in cage mariculture capable to provide high fish production and to weaken organic pollution of shallow water areas where cage farms are located.
Methodology. The studies were conducted in 1999 and 2004. Cages of special design (internal 10 m3 and external 18.75 m3) installed in the brackish Shabolat Lagoon were used for rearing, steelhead trout, haarder, grass goby and round goby in polyculture.
The standard aquaculture research methods were used. For express-analysis of environment hydrochemical parameters in cage location area the following devices were used: "ECOTEST-2000 T" (О2, NO2, NO3, NH4, CO2, phosphates, pH); termooksimetr "АJА-101М" (Т; О2); "pH meter-150 M); Refractometer "ATAGO-100" (salinity and water density).
Findings. The results of marine fish cultivation in cages in polyculture in the shallow Shabolat lagoon are presented. It has been shown that joint cultivation of salmon, mullet and gobies in specially designed cages in shallow marine lagoons allows using artificial and natural feeds more fully and provides a high yield of commercial fish that results in significant additional products with a decrease in pollution level of the water area where the cages are installed.
Originality. An original method for rearing marine fish in polyculture in specially designed cages has been developed. The perspective of culturing salmon, mullet and gobies in the polyculture has been demonstrated experimentally. The proposed technology ensures high efficiency of cage mariculture, allows getting additional production through the use of additional facilities and a reduction in the level of organic pollution in shallow water areas where cage farms are located.
Practical value. The results of the study can be used to create cage mariculture farms in shallow seaside lagoons. Creating marine fish polyculture in specially designed cages will increase the efficiency of cultivation, reduce feed costs and reduce pollution in shallow water areas.
Purpose. To analyze the results of cultivation and give fish-breeding and biological characteristics of age-3 brood rainbow trout grown using industrial technology in the conditions of the trout farm "Sloboda Banyliv."
Methodology. Fish cultivation was carried in tank conditions of the trout farm "Sloboda Banyliv". The material for the study were age-3 brood rainbow trout obtained from eggs of the fall-spawning form of rainbow trout. Cultivation was carried out in a 216 m2 tank, stocking density of 255 fish/m2, using standard trout culture methods. Statistical analysis of the material was performed in Microsoft Office Excel (2003). Analysis of the variables was performed in the system of absolute values. The analysis criteria were their mean values mean deviations (M±m), standard error (σ), variability coefficient (Cv). Fish were fed with specialized feed manufactured by “BioMar” (Denmark) with a high protein content (more than 40%).
Findings. Based on the performed selective-breeding works aimed at creating brood stocks of rainbow trout, it was found that brood fish reared in the industrial conditions of the fish farm “Sloboda Banyliv”, despite instable culture conditions, were characterized by a moderate growth rate and had high values of productive and reproductive features. Mean weight of age-3 rainbow trout females was 1282.5 g, fecundity — 3.48 thousand eggs. Mean weight of produced eggs was 239.17 g, while individual parameters were 70.4 mg for the weight and 4.58 mm for the diameter.
Originality. For the first time a study aimed at the formation of brood stocks of rainbow trout with analysis of phenotypic and productive features in the conditions of a fish farm with instable temperature and water regimes has been conducted.
Practical value. The results of the performed work will allow selecting and forming a brood stock with high values of productive and reproductive features.
Purpose. To study the effect of diet and water flow composition on the manifestations of cannibalism of shrimp Macrobrachium nipponense during rearing under controlled conditions.
Methodology. The material for the work was shrimp fry with a length 2.0-3.5 cm and weight 1.5-3.0 g, caught in autumn 2016 in ponds of the lower reaches of the Dniester river. The shrimp were kept in tanks of the recirculation system with a volume of 0.3 m3. The temperature regime, light (period and intensity), and other environmental parameters were maintained in accordance with the specified parameters. Weighing was carried out on an AXISAD-50 electronic balance with an accuracy of 0.001 g. The length was measured with a ruler or with a caliper. In chronic experiments, two groups of shrimps were kept at the stocking density of 3 ind./L, temperature of 26-29°C and other equal conditions in tanks of a recirculating system. The diet of the first group consisted of animal food (bloodworm, fish, squid, snail, tubule, artemia), the second group was fed by plant feeds (cereals, vegetables, spinach, nuts, alfalfa, rice, chickpeas). Maturation of females in the second group was not observed. At the same time, cases of aggressive behavior were rare, and cannibalism was not observed, which ensured 100% survival. In the second series of experiments, shrimp were kept in fattening tanks at stocking density of 2 ind./L and a ratio ♂♂: ♀♀ - 1: 4. The diet of shrimp consisted of animal and plant feeds (1: 1). During the 30 days of the experiment, the water temperature was maintained at 26.0 ± 0.5 °C, the photoperiod was 12 hours light, 12 hours dark.
Findings. The shrimp, which received animal food, grew faster. 20% of the females formed eggs. At the same time, their aggressiveness was high, which led to the loss due to injuries and cannibalism of 40% of the individuals. The shrimp, which received vegetable food, grew slower. Their final weight and size were significantly lower (P> 0.95) than those of shrimps of the first group with similar initial parameters. In the tank No. 1, a lateral flow of moderate force was created. Shrimps formed a sparse aggregation in the center of the tank avoiding the current. They did not take refuge, did not show aggression towards each other and did not protect their territory. In the tank No. 2, with similar conditions, there was no lateral flow. Shrimps were distributed evenly in the tank, took refuge and protected their territory, were aggressive towards other individuals, often entering into fights with them. With similar size and weight characteristics of shrimp in both cultivation variants (the difference is not significant P <0.95), no loss was observed in the first case, while it was 20% in the second case.
Originality. For the first time, it was shown that the diet composition affects the growth, behavior and survival of M. nipponense shrimp. The use of vegetable feeds reduced aggressiveness and improved shrimp survival. Animal food increased the intensity of growth, ensured maturation of females, but increased the loss of shrimp due to cannibalism. Cultivation of shrimp in a tank with lateral flow of moderate force reduced traumatism and the loss of individuals due to aggressive behavior, with similar size and weight parameters.
Practical value. Shrimp Macrobrachium nipponense is a promising object of aquaculture in the southern Ukraine. Increasing the yield of marketable production is an important aspect ensuring profitability of production. In this regard, the development of the methods, which allow reducing aggressiveness and increase the survival of shrimps in conditions of marketable cultivation is of great practical importance.
Purpose. Sturgeon is the common name for the 27 species of fish belonging to the family Acipenseridae. The family is grouped into four genera: Acipenser, Huso, Scaphirhynchus and Pseudoscaphirhynchus. Four species may now be extinct. Two closely related species, Polyodon spathula (paddlefish) and Psephurus gladius (Chinese paddlefish, possibly extinct) are of the same order, Acipenseriformes, but belong to the family Polyodontidae and are not considered as "true" sturgeons. The aim of our paper is to develop and carry out a new DNA identification methodology for the sturgeons species with the use of real time polymerase chain reaction.
Methodology. A PCR with the detection of results in real time was used for DNA-identification of sturgeon species.
Findings. The new real-time PCR was developed and tested for rapid and accurate identification of DNA extracted from eggs and meat of four sturgeon species such as beluga (Huso huso, Linnaeus), Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii, Brandt), sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus, Linnaeus) and stellate sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus, Pallas). Based on the results of analytical specificity and comparison of the amplification parameters, we detected specific amplification and absence of cross reactions for fin fragments and eggs of the studied fish species. The proposed DNA-identification method can be used for the identification of sturgeon species that will allow controlling the production of competitive aquaculture products, which will meet CITES requirements.
Originality. For the first time, the development and approbation of the methodology for species identification of sturgeon fish by using real-time PCR was carried out.
Practical value. Species identification of sturgeon fish will allow controlling the production of competitive and legalized aquaculture products that meet CITES requirements as well as will ensure the implementation of the country strategic plan for food security in Ukraine.
Purpose. To analyze the mesonephros structure in the bream (Abramis brama Linnaeus, 1758) during its spawning migration, to determine the perspective of the use of microanatomical monitoring data in fisheries practice for assessing the functional status of fish.
Methodology. Collection of ichthyological material was carried out using permit documents of the Institute of Fisheries NAAS of Ukraine, while their processing was done at the Department of Aquatic Bioresources and Aquaculture of the Kherson State Agricultural University.
Ichthyological material was collected using gill nets, fyke nets, beach seines. Monitoring stations were located along the spawning migration run of the bream from the Dnieper lagoon to the plavni system of the Dnieper River.
Field and laboratory processing of the material was done using author’s equipment and original methods specially designed for histological diagnostics of tissues of aquatic animals.
Findings. The basis of the adaptation of bream kidneys to waters of different salinities us structural irregularity of nephrons expressed in the size and structure of renal corpuscles and convoluted tubules. Significant fluctuations of osmolarity parameters within the lower Dnieper area have significant effects on changes in the structure and function of nephrogenic tissue in form of the reduction in the diameter of Boumen-Shumliansky capsule by 9.0 µm. Changes of the Boumen-Shumliansky capsule diameter in fish with moderate mineralization is the range of 6.0 and 4.0 µm. The reduction in the height of epitheliocytes of proximal convoluted tubules by 3.0; 2.0 and 4.0 µm also indicate on the reduction of the functional activity of the convolute.
The fluctuations of nephrogenic and homeopathic tissue ratio have a balance nature that can be related to the redistribution of these components due to the appearance of an adaptation under the effect of chloride-ions.
The dislocation of ion-transporting cells near the blood vessels and around tubule epitheliocytes indicate on the participation of mesonephros in ion-regulating processes by increasing the resistance to changes in the osmolarity of the medium.
The functional activity of a nephron changes when the osmolarity in bream mesonephros decreases that is manifested as a reduction in the diameter of renal corpuscles and height of the epithelium of proximal convoluted tubules.
Originality. The detailed microanatomical analysis of mesonephros structure of mature bream of the Dnieper-Bug mouth system has been performed for the first time. The existing information on the taxonomic peculiarities of the transformation of nephrogenic tissue of fish in the conditions of spawning migration has been significantly elaborated and updated.
Practical value. The actual information gives an opportunity to use the obtained material not only in morphophysiological studies but also in the practice of ichthyology and aquaculture in relation to the existing problem of the reduction in the life status of individual fish that results in the reduction of the stock of valuable commercial species, which formed partially migratory forms in the delta areas of river ecosystems.
Purpose. To analyze data from scientific sources of information regarding the species-specific features of the hematopoietic and histo-morphological characteristics of hematopoietic tissues and organs of sturgeons (Acipenseridae). Consider the general aspects of their structure at different stages of ontogeny. To present the general features of differentiation and proliferation of blood elements.
Findings. A review of scientific papers and literature has revealed that hematopoiesis in sturgeon species of fish differs significantly from that of mammals (Mammalia), but also from other fish from cartilaginous (Chondrichthyes) and bony (Osteichthyes) classes. Moreover, sturgeon fishes are characterized by a species-specificity in the development of hemopoiesis organs on each stage of ontogenesis. The age-related changes of the developing blood cells, ranging from blast elements (erythroblasts, lymphoblasts, monoblasts, myeloblasts) to the appearance of mature (definitive) forms, are marked. The specific heterochrony is revealed in the development of sturgeon blood cells. The organs of hemopoiesis are: hemopoietic cranial or lymphoid organ, gills, spleen, heart, thymus, gastrointestinal tract (anterior part of the digestive canal, pyloric gland, middle intestine, spiral valve and liver) and kidneys (pronephros and mesonephros). Hepatic hematosis begins to be realized during the larval period of development from a massive spread near the vascular connective tissue. A little bit later in the age of 15 days of active feeding, a similar spread covers practically all area of the body. At this time in liver hepatocytes and reticular cells with developing blood corpuscle are precisely allocated. In this period, proliferation of all cellular lines: erythropoietic, lymphocytopoietic, myelocytopoietic, and also thrombocytopoiesis take place in liver. The plasmocyte differentiation occurs in cranial haematogenic organ of sturgeon. In reticular tissue of lymphoid organ, thrombocyte precursors — megakariocytes were found. Mesonephros is a hemopoietic organ, which first starts to perform the hemopoietic function, and executes it until the end of the life cycle of fish. Cell development of erythropoietic and lymphocytopoiesis series is over in the prolarvaperiod of the development in the hematopoietic tissue of the kidney, and the formation of the granular series occurs in the larval period, and eosinophilic myelocytes are marked much earlier than in other hematopoietic organs (the 43 stage of the development), and a bit later — neutrophil myelocytes.
Practical value. Systematized data on the specifics of hematopoiesis processes and patterns of development of hemopoietic organs in sturgeon species will be useful both for researchers and fish farmers. This is due to the fact that the course of hemopoiesis most fully reflects each specific stage of the development of sturgeon species, being an instant reaction of a number of body tissues to any changes in the internal and external environment.
Purpose. To develop the optimum composition of a cryoprotective solution for freezing sterlet sperm with the use of new and standard constituents and compare the results of the fertilization of eggs with sperm frozen by different ways and in different media. To analyze the results of keeping sterlet males in simulated conditions of natural spawning and to assess the quality of sexual products obtained during early spawning periods in comparison with natural ones.
Methodology. The tasks set for the optimization of cryoprotective media for freezing sterlet sperm were solved according to generally accepted cryobiology methods and in accordance with Kopyeyka Ye. F. recommendations. The works with brооd sterlet were conducted in accordance with the generally accepted methods of sturgeon breeding and recommendations for natural spawning modeling.
Findings. The studies demonstrated a positive effect of creatine, the introduction of which into the solution allowed increasing the cryoprotection of sperm from damaging factors of cryopreservation. During low-temperature freezing of sperm by different ways, the best results were obtained when freezing sperm in samples of smallest volume — granules that was evidenced by the number of live thawed spermatozoa, fertilization rates of eggs and the number of developing embryos. The simulation of the conditions of natural spawning allowed obtaining high-quality sexual products from sterlet males earlier in comparison with natural spawning periods, freezing them and fertilizing eggs after several weeks of storage.
Originality. Among a variety of substances used in cryobiology for the optimization of the composition of protective solutions, positive results were tested and obtained with the use of creatine. Optimization of the cryopreservation solution composition was carried out using sterlet sperm obtained at early spawning terms compared to the natural ones.
Practical value. The obtained results can be used in the conditions of hatcheries for obtaining sterlet offspring both for market and for the restoration of their populations in natural water bodies. In addition, the obtained results are the basis for further studies on the development of optimum composition of cryoprotective media for freezing sterlet sperm.
Purpose.To describe the basic physical-chemical and biological properties of certain minerals of volcanic origin, which are deposited in Ukraine.To examine and make a comparative assessment of their chemical composition and biological properties including zeolite, bentonite and saponite. To summarize performance data on the effectiveness of their use in animal, poultry and fish feed as a feed additive.
Findings. Groups of zeolites, saponins and bentonites among the minerals of volcanic origin, which are deposited on Ukrainian territory, have been examined. The chemical composition, and hence the properties of these minerals have significant differences. The scientific review of papers shows their wide application in industry, medicine and animal breeding. Zeolite component is presented by clinoptilolite which is suitable for animal feed because of the structure of the crystal lattice. Its structure and chemical composition is determined by sorbing and ion exchange properties. There is a positive effect of zeolite, bentonite and saponite on animals. Zeolites are used in pisciculture in order to increase fish productivity of fisheries and clean fishing reservoir water. The perspective of research efficiency of volcanic origin minerals in fish feeding before the sawning period was determined
Practical value. Analysis and synthesis of scientific studies in various fields of animal breeding will help to determine the prospects and ways of the application of the minerals of volcanic origin (bentonite, zeolite and saponite) in pisciculture.