Background: Due to lack of active blood donation, Pakistan fails to meet the basic medical requirements. That’s why, to increase the medical facilities and to motivate a sense of humanity, this practice is mandatory. Rigorous aimed advertising and information; ulterior motive and privilege of unpaid healthy volunteer donors for blood are needed for a satisfactory and safe blood and blood components.
Methodology: This was a cross-sectional comparative study between medical and non-medical universities. A total of 150 students were recruited. A self-administered questionnaire was used which comprised of 14 questions including demographics (gender, marital status, university, year of study and blood group) and blood donation questions related to knowledge, attitudes, and practices. The data was analyzed using statistical package for social software (SPSS) version 16. The Statistical test applied was Chi-square Pearson’s test where appropriate P-value <0.05 was considered significant.
Results: Out of 150 participants 17(11.26%) were donors and 113(88.08%) were those who didn’t participate in blood donation. Where else, the donors 12 (71 %) belonged to Medical and 5 (29%) from Non-medical, indicating that students with poor knowledge donate the least. Only 53 (43.70%) have some knowledge related to blood donation. Insufficient concept and different fears (needle injury, transmission of blood-borne diseases etc.) were the principal factors discouraging them from donating. The attitude towards blood donation was positive for both groups (Medical and Non-Medical) i.e. (49.95%). But despite this percentage, both groups i.e. (Medical and Non-Medical) showed no willingness towards donating blood.
Conclusion: The result of this study conclude that the objective of voluntary blood donation could be more effective if specific donor’s personal information and educational background is obtained, motivation and recruitment strategies must be focused. Administrate donation camps periodically in high-schools would invigorate more students (those having trouble with time and information).
Background: Accumulation of fat in the liver is known as liver steatosis which occurs as a result of obesity. Ginsenoside is glycosylated saponins easily found in Asia, Egypt and China. The aim of this study is to determine the role ginseng in treating fatty changes of liver measured by weight, size, and enzymes.
Methodology: It was an experimental study on animals. Ginseng root extract was prepared under expert supervision. Fifty male rats were divided into five groups each has to contain ten animals. Group 1 on balanced diet (control), Group 2 on high fat diet (HFD) obese control, Group 3 on HFD + Ginsenoside (100mg/kg body weight), Group 4 on HFD + Ginsenoside (200mg/kg body weight) and Group 5 on HFD + Ginsenoside (400mg/kg body weight). Animals were weighted at commencement then weekly and finally before sacrifice. Animals were sacrificed under chloroform anesthesia, the liver was isolated and removed. Liver weight and size were measured. Blood was collected through cardiac puncture and sent to DDRRL for LFT.
Results: By giving HFD, increase in liver weight, as well as the liver size and liver enzymes, was observed. Ginsenoside when given to HFD induced liver steatosis leads to decrease in liver weight, liver size, and liver enzymes. It had a prompt effect on reducing body weight as well as liver weight by reducing fat contents of the body.
Conclusion: The study provides evidence that Ginsenoside has hepatoprotective effects by reducing the weight, size, and enzymes of the liver.
Background: Vitamin D deficiency recognized as a pandemic problem around the globe. In the last few decades, the incidence of hypovitaminosis D is affected severely in both genders of Pakistan. Due to economical hurdles and sociocultural practices, the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D is much higher in females which leads to age-related chronic bone & skeletal deformities. To find out vitamin D profile associated with anthropometric measurement of young healthy Pakistani females.
Methodology: 115 healthy female participants were recruited for the study. Demographic profile, physical activity status, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements of participants were collected by means of a questionnaire designed for the study. Participantsto two groups, vitamin D deficient (VDD) group, and vitamin D adequate (VDA) group. Anthropometric measurements of both groups included body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), mid-upper arm circumference (MAC), triceps skinfold (TSF), corrected mid-upper arm muscle area (CMUAMA) and circumference of thigh size, neck size, biceps size and wrist size. Data were analyzed using Microsoft office 2013. A t-test was applied to find out the associations. P value < 0.05 was considered significant.
Results: P-value for all anthropometric measurements, was found to be non-significant. Unhealthy dietary habits were much higher in VDD group as compared to VDA group. Thus, it was found that there is a high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in young Pakistani females.
Conclusion: Hypovitaminosis has great influence on physical activity, anthropometric measurement and dietary intake of an individual.
Background: World Health Organization states that smoking is presently the major reason for the death of one in every ten adults worldwide. The most astounding commonness of smoking is found more in gatherings of young adults and falls consistently in more seasoned age populace. Experimentation of smoking is usually seen during adolescence, but sufficient understanding of factors analogous to early initiation remains indescribable. Dependence is a conduct in which a person or an individual has blunt control with destructive repercussion. A number of reasons contribute in continuation of this dependence property, the majority of which include friends and social circle.
Methodology: The focus of the research study is to get into account the ramification, extensiveness and reasons behind smoking in specifically young adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted; data were collected through a self-designed questionnaire. A total of 153 university students were included with a response rate of 100%, having to mean age 22 ± 2 .14 years. Data were analyzed using SPSS ver. 20 and Microsoft Excel 2013.Cross-tabulation was done using Chi-square test and one sample t-test.
Results: The study results indicate that majority of the subjects started smoking between the age group of 17 -20 years, under the influence of their social gatherings, mostly due to friend circle, while the other reasons may include family, stress, and anxiety. 67.2% smoke cigarette along with their friends while 26.4% of the respondents were habitual of smoking alone.
Conclusion: There are many factors which influence the rate of nicotine dependence among students, the majority of which includes the absence of medical guidance, lack of will, family and friends habits and withdrawal effects.
Background: The footprints of zinc dietary nutrient deficiency are resulting in a widespread burden of stunting, wasting and underweight in children under five years, and reproductive development in women over a population of 100 million in Pakistan. The zinc malnutrition could be addressed by consumption of biofortified high zinc wheat flour, a staple food, in complemented with food supplementation, food diversification and food fortification interventions in the country.
Methodology: This evidence-based research publication focused on micronutrients malnutrition on human health and capital. Literature was taken from last 20 years papers published in several peers reviewed scientific journals. Papers regarding malnutrition were mainly focused. The primary data was collected from R&D institutions and secondary data from Pakistan National Nutrition Survey 2011. Various sites, viz. www.harvestplus.org, www.ifpri.org, http://www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/ndl, http://data.unicef.org: www.fao.org: http://wholibdoc.who.int/publications were also visited.
Results: In Pakistan, the recently released biofortified high zinc wheat variety “Zincol-2016” had a higher quantum of 37 mg Zn kg-1 compared to 25.0 mg Zn kg-1 in grain portion in other commercially grown wheat varieties. Upon consuming biofortified wheat flour, zinc concentration increased from 681.3 to 792.3 µg L-1 in human plasma. Furthermore, even an increase in dietary zinc by an amount of 2.0 mg Zn capita-1 day-1 may result in halving the endemic problem of zinc malnutrition, with a little change in food diversity pattern.
Conclusion: The consumption of biofortified high zinc wheat variety “Zincol-2016” containing 37 mg Zn kg-1 compared to 25.0 mg Zn kg-1 in conventional wheat varieties could result in alleviating zinc malnutrition to the extent of 50% in the malnourished population. Thereby, it is a potential complementary staple food with other contemporary interventions to address malnutrition in Pakistan.
Background: Patients in critical care setting often encounter severe delirium and agitation putting them at risk of harm. So it has become a common trend to restraint patient physically in intensive care units. However, physical restraint has several adverse physical, psychological and ethical consequences. Awareness regarding significant risk associated with physical restraint, continuing education and skills stabilize the patient’s safety and potential complication regarding ethical and legal issues to physical restraint in critical care settings. This study aims to address if any alternatives have been tested regarding physical restraint to improve the patient care for critical care.
Methodology: A search conducted using the PubMed, Medline and Google Scholar including physical restraint use in critical care setting from 1994 to 2017. Studies published in English were included whereas articles published in psychiatric care, children and outside the hospital were excluded. The keywords used were critical care, critically ill, ICU patient safety and physical restraint. The Boolean phrases were used to clarify the quality of search results: ‘‘physical restraint & critical care,’’ ‘‘physical restraint & critically ill’’ ‘‘physical restraint & ICU,’’ physical restraint & patient safety.’’ Additionally, reference lists of selected papers were then evaluated further.
Results: Enhanced knowledge, focused education and continuing training to improve skills in using restraint alternatives, awareness of the risk, early identification, conduct proper institutional policies and guidelines, and proactive intervention is the significant measures in alleviating physical restraint use in critical care settings.
Conclusion: A restraint-free environment not only promotes patient safety but also ensure greater caregivers’ job satisfaction reducing ethical issues.
Background: Oral cavity contains heterogenous environment which provides different niches in different environment present in a symbiotic relation. Normal oral flora when getting favorable environment gets attached to the tooth surface. Alteration in this mutualistic association transforms into diseased condition. The oral cavity begins to harbor microflora immediately after birth. Oral cavity harbors about 20 phyla and more than 700 species. The objective of this study is to determine the origin of the microorganisms responsible for dental diseases.
Methodology: PUBMED database was searched for the English articles published with the combinations of following search terms: normal oral bacteria, oral bacteria, oral microbiome, dental caries, tooth caries, endodontic infection, and recurrent pulpal infection. Abstracts and also full text was revised to identify the suitable papers that describe the microbiological association of dental diseases which were used.
Results: Nosocomial infection has found to be associated with persistent endodontic infection. Thus, proper sterilization and change of instruments and gloves after each procedure for every root canal instrumentation are mandatory to provide clean sterile preparation of the canal. Also, persistent/secondary intraradicular infection associated with Actinomyces species and P. propionicum is treated with surgical procedure only. Therefore bacteriological analysis of the canal helps to determine the efficacy of the endodontic treatment in primary infection, chances of secondary or persistent endodontic infection, and requirement of surgical treatment.
Conclusion: Dental diseases are mainly associated with the virulence of different microorganisms present in the oral cavity. After the initiation of disease, exogenous bacteria are attracted to the site. Thus maintenance of proper oral hygiene prevents the transformation of normal flora to a diseased state. If the disease is diagnosed early and treated, it prevents the life-threatening condition.
Background: Sports Pharmacy is an emerging field globally that has developed from in connection with health, economic and social sectors. The main reason of its importance has been taken into account for research and implementation in the prevention of doping, delivery systems, compounding medications and dietary supplements. Though there is a dire need of developing f sports Pharmacy as a separate field in Pakistan and to address hindrances in its progress.
Methodology: A short communication of 20 years i.e. 1998-2018. Databases used are Google Scholar, PubMed, Research gate, Scopus, The Nation news, BBC news.
Results: The significant highlights include that there is a usual partaking of the populace in sport and exercise at personal and professional levels and at every level, there is a need for advice about general healthcare and associated therapies for better performance and wellbeing. It is also identified that there is a growing need for specialist pharmacists in the area of sport and exercise in order to fulfill this valuable healthcare role. These specialists may be described as sports pharmacist’s development of Sports pharmacy in Pakistan. Prevention of doping worldwide reduced significantly with the help of pharmacist expertise.
Conclusion: Sports pharmacy can be helpful in changing some healthcare aspects regarding sports worldwide. For the development of sports pharmacy in Pakistan, serious arrangements need to be taken.