Clinico-pathological study of orbital inflammatory diseases of infectious origin
Authors: Prasanna Jit Das,Abhisek Mondal*
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Introduction: Infection in the orbit and the periorbital tissues are particularly important subsets of inflammatory diseases not only because of frequency of presentation but also because of life threatening conditions which demand prompt, specific and therapeutic management. Of the orbital inflammation with infections most common aetiological factors encountered, are due to bacteria.
Materials and Methods: All patients with orbital signs and symptoms of inflammatory diseases of infectious origin were selected. Progression, symptoms, history of associated symptoms such as headache, fever, allergy etc. asked for. History of trauma, immunization and systemic illness, endocrinological disorders, infections of any systems and any dermatological disorders were taken into account. Local examination, ENT examination, laboratory and radiological investigations were done in all cases.
Results: Incidence of orbital infection is 0.34%. Male preponderance and maximum number of patients were adult. The maximum aetiological factor of orbital infection being due to infections of the ocular adnexae, sinusitis, dacryocystitis, post-surgical, and trauma. Raised IOP in 24%, proptosis in 34%, restricted ocular motility in 42%, mechanical ptosis in 70%, NLD block in 18%, Corneal oedema or opacity in 14% and inflammation of ocular adnexae in almost all cases. In majority of the cases the organism responsible is Pseudomonas aeuroginosa, then staphylococcus aureus.
Conclusion: Orbital infection is sight threatening and the pathognomic features and virulence of the causative organism is unpredictable. Early presentation appropriate diagnosis and judicious protocol if followed at an early stage would halt the morbidity and fatality.