КОГНІТИВНИЙ ПІДХІД У ДОСЛІДЖЕННІ ЕМОЦІЙНОЇ СФЕРИ
Authors: ЛИСЕНКОВА Ірина Петрівна
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For the adherents of cognitive theories, on the one hand, the principles and mechanisms of managing the process of cognition, in which the perception, conservation, processing, interpretation and acquisition of new knowledge takes place and, on the other hand, the study of fundamental cognitive processes and differences in perception and comprehension are the objects of the interest. Many researchers (J. Atkinson, A. Bandura, C. Hull, J. Kuhl, E. Lowell, D. McClelland, G. Muller, H. Helmholtz, H. Heckhausen, E. Tolman, etc.) focus on the study of mental processes and consciousness that determine behavior or activity. Such approach makes it possible to draw conclusions about which mental processes are included in the activity, and how they are involved in the development of the emotional sphere and the manifestation of human emotions. Cognitive theories of emotions and personality can be divided to at least two broad classes of theories. These are the so-called self-theories, or theories of self-consciousness, and theories that consider the root cause or component of emotion to be cognitive processes. The central and prevailing notion of all self-theories is the one’s self- concept. Self-concept is a holistic, integrated phenomenon, consisting of the perception and knowledge of the individual himself, and it is given a huge explanatory meaning in the self-theories. Within these theories behavior is seen as a function of perception and especially of the individual’s perception. Schachter’s two-factor theory of emotions suggests that emotion should be considered as a combination of two components: physiological excitation and a cognitive interpretation of this excitation. According to the theory, "products of the cognitive process are used to interpret the significance of physiological reactions to external events". In the context of Festinger’s theory of cognitive dissonance, emotion is seen as a process whose quality is determined by the coherence of the interacting systems. A positive emotional experience appears when the action plan that is being implemented does not meet obstacles in itspath. Negative emotions are associated with a mismatch between the current activity and the expected result. Dissonance, discrepancy between the expected and actual results of activity, implies the existence of two main emotional states, which are directly related to the effectiveness of cognitive activity, the construction of activity plans and their implementation. The theory of differential emotions of K.Izard postulates that emotion arises as a response to a specific mental image, whether a symbol, concept or thought. It is considering the emergence of a connection between feeling and thought, or about the affective-cognitive structure. In an adult, emotions are often associated with mental images, and therefore it seems necessary to focus attention on this thesis: the regular occurrence of a certain emotion in response to a certain image eventually leads to the formation of affective and cognitive structure. Affective-cognitive structures can be a combination of drive and cognitive process or a combination of drive, emotion and cognitive process.