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Gelled emulsions enriched with chickpea flour as a potential substitute for animal fat
Authors: Melisa, G. Britez, Fabiana A. Rolhaiser, Carina L. Fernández, Ricardo A. Fogar, Mara Cristina Romero
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The aim of the study was to develop gelled oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions, formulated with flax oil and chickpea flour with adequate structural and technological properties to be used as substitutes for animal fat. For this, two formulations were made, one without antioxidant and the other with the most widely used synthetic antioxidant in the industry. The chickpea flour and gelatin were hydrated for 3 hours with stirring at 3000 r. p. m., then they were heated for 30 minutes at 90 °C, cooled to 30 °C and processed again at 3000 r. p. m. for 30 seconds, while the oil phase was slowly incorporated with the emulsifying agent. The mixtures were placed in containers, allowed to stabilize at 25 °C for 30 minutes and then refrigerated for 24 hours. The syneresis, thermal stability, lipid oxidation, and infrared spectra of the samples were determined. Some significant differences can be observed for lipid oxidation (p <0.05), however, syneresis and thermal stability did not show differences (p> 0.05), with emulsions showing great water and fat retention capacity. This can be attributed to the protein structure resulting from heating the emulsion to cause gelation. The gelled emulsions obtained have adequate structural and technological properties, with lipid oxidation values under limit of detection of 1.59 mg MDA / kg sample. Given the characteristics of the emulsion obtained, a new field of application of technological strategies opens up to obtain animal fat substitutes as a healthy fat ingredient in meat products.