Xylooligosaccharides from agricultural by-products: characterisation, production and physiological effects
Authors: Kaprelyants L., Zhurlova O., Shpirko T., Pozhitkova L.
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The current study is a review of characteristics, production, physiological properties and application of xylooligosaccharides
(XOS). XOS are the carbohydrates, their molecules are built from xylose residues linked mainly by в-(1→
4)-glycoside bonds. Xylan is important for plant cell walls and is widely spread component in agricultural by-products. XOS
are products of xylan hydrolytic degradation, and exhibiting the high prebiotic potential. The XOS preparation of wheat and
rye bran stimulated the cells accumulation - 1,4∙1010 CFU/cm3 of L. аcidophilus and 9,2∙1010 CFU/cm3 of В. bifidum. A difference
in XOS molecules branching causes a wide range of their physiological properties: antioxidant, immunomodulation, antimicrobial,
anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic. XOS can reduce high cholesterol level and triglycerides in blood plasma.
XOS application reviewed in this article opens new perspectives on its potential use for human consumption. The rich sources
of xylan are wheat, rye and barley bran, rice husk, wheat straw, corncobs, cotton stalk. Industrial way of XOS production includes
chemical or enzymatic hydrolysis with following purification. Chemical methods are based on hydrothermal pretreatment
and acidic or alkali extraction. Obtained oligosaccharides have a wide range of polymerization degree (DP) from 2 to 20.
Enzymatic methods include fermentation with xylanase that allow controlling the XOS accumulation with certain DP. The different
chromatographic purification after hydrolysis is used for analytical purposes. There are anion-exchange, size-exclusion,
affinity, size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography. In addition, biomethods are preferred for XOS used in food,
because such preparations do not contain monosaccharides and furfural as contaminants. XOS are stable in a wide range of
temperature and pH, justifying the development of new synbiotics generation. Most widely XOS are used in production of
functional products and pharmaceutical preparations. But they are also applied in cosmetic, agricultural and mixed feed industries.