Metabolism and Physiology of Methylotrophs
Authors: Oleg Mosin, Ignat Ignatov
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Methylotrophs are aerobic chemoheterotrophic microorganisms represented by cocci and bacilli mobile forms, are inhabitants of reservoirs and soils of various type, where there are going on various processes of decomposition of organic substances with formation of the one-carbon С1-compounds and some С2- and С3-compounds, capable to be assimilated by methylotrophs. These microorganisms assimilating carbon on ribuloso-5-monophospate and serine pathways are allocated from soil ground, the sewage containing decomposing vegetative remainss, from ruminant paunch and other sources. Methylotrophic bacteria recently draw the increasing attention of biotechnology as feasible sources of natural biologically active compounds – fodder fibers and irreplaceable amino acids, carotenoid pigments, lipids and policarbohydrates. For preparation of these compounds are used genetically marked strains of methylotrophic bacteria, obtained via genetic engineering approaches and selection. The recently developed gene-engineering methods of manipulation with the methylotrophic genom allow create on the basis of microbic DNA of methylotrophs the expression vectors of eukaryotic proteins for medical and veterinary purposes as human insulins. In this review article there are submitted data including the results of the authors’ own research on metabolism and physiology of methylotrophic bacteria.