Activity of Chloroform Extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Root against Plasmodium Berghei in vivo
Authors: Ishaya Yohanna Longdet, Deborah Haruna Yakubu
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The work was designed to investigate the anti-malarial activity of chloroform root extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis on Plasmodium berghei NK65 strain infection in vivo. Eighteen mice were intraperitoneal infected with chloroquine sensitive P. berghei strain and shared into 6 equal groups. Groups A, B, and C were treated, after infection, with 100, 200 and 300 mg extract/kg body weight of mouse respectively while group D was treated with 25 mg chloroquine/kg body weight. Group E mice were infected and administered only normal saline (negative control), and group F was neither infected nor treated. Phytochemical constituents of the plant extract were evaluated. The three concentrations of the extract resulted in reduced parasitemia, although the 200 mg/kg administered to group B had more effect than the 300mg/kg and 100 mg/kg administered to group C and A respectively. The highest activity was observed in the chloroquine group (positive control group). Also, at doses of 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg, the extract produced increase in body weight and life span as compared to mice in the negative control group. At doses of 100mg/kg and 300mg/kg, the extract produced increase in PCV of the infected mice as compared to mice in the negative control group. Phytochemical screening showed that the leaf extract contains alkaloids, Balsam, Resin, cardiac glycosides and terpenes and steroids. The chloroform root extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis presented a transient effect on Plasmodium infection in mice and so justifies the use of the plant as part of native desertion against malaria.