Cambio tecnológico en los agroecosistemas por migración familiar: el caso del municipio de Jamapa, Veracruz / Technological change in agroecosystems due to family migrations: The case of the Jamapa municipality, Veracruz
Authors: Verónica Rosales-Martínez, Juan Pablo Martínez-Dávila, Diego Esteban Platas-Rosado, Adalberto Rosendo-Ponce, Víctor Córdova-Ávalos
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Migration is a survival strategy that is applied in situations of poverty, to lighten the problem of low salaries and inefficiently managed family needs. The purpose of this study was to compare the technological management of farming activities, applied by families before and after migrating, from 1979 to 2008 in the municipality of Jamapa, Veracruz. A survey was applied to 45 families with migrants, with a questionnaire of 115 closed questions, during the year 2009. Statistically significant changes were observed (McNemar, Chi2 = 18.91 and p < 0.001) with negative results for all technology used in activities related to maize, beans and cattle. The definition of a negative change was based on the fact that the technological elements that the producers used before migrating and no longer used afterwards were 265; the group of technological elements with a positive change, that is, which they did not use before and did use afterwards was 173. It may be concluded that migration has had a negative effect on maize (Chi2 = 122.49, p < 0.001) and bean (Chi2 = 98.09, p < 0.001) crops, and a positive effect on cattle ranching (Chi2 = 116.48, p < 0.001). Thus, the economy of families with migrants, in the agroecosystems of Jamapa, has improved, but the diversity of farm activities has decreased.