A Cultural Perspectıve to Leadership Practices in Balkans.
Authors: Nizamettin Doğar
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The question of whether a single leader type will emerge as one of the possible
effects of globalization has required research on the subject. In the context of culture,
Hofsthede, Brodbeck et al, and GLOBE studies, revealing that different leadership
characteristics come to the fore in different geographies with cultural influences,
refuting the claim that a uniform leader model will emerge with globalization. Among
the aforementioned studies, GLOBE studies went a little further and claimed that
leadership is actually a function of culture.
Leadership research in the Balkans, which is a tangle of cultures with its complex ethnic
structure, is relatively less included in the literature. The main purpose of this article
is; Despite this problem arising from the Cold War period, how the leadership styles
are in the Balkans is to examine the relationship between Balkan style leadership and
culture. At the same time, the article has a secondary purpose that questions whether
the claim that “there is not a single Balkans” is also valid for leadership practices when
it comes to culture.
Literature review and observation method were used in the research. The observations
mainly include the observations made in Albania between the years of 2012-2015. On
the other hand,the literature review is based on the data obtained primarily from local
studies about each country in the Balkans.
The results obtained emphasize that when it comes to leadership in the Balkan
countries, the first thing is that political leadership is understood, which draws
attention to autocratic leadership from the socialist administration period. In the
context of business leadership, it shows that autocratic leadership was effective in
the 10-year transition period after the Cold War, and that transformational leadership
began to come to the fore in the 2000s at varying speed and rate according to
institutions and countries. As a result of the investigations, the article shows that
quite similar leadership characteristics stand out for the Balkans, the culture of
democracy has not yet fully settled in this context, the avoidance of uncertainty in
social codes, the autocratic administration still has an important place as a reflection
of cultural dimensions such as the distance of power, on the other hand, willingness to
change with new generations, more democratic leadership expectations increase and
transformational leadership comes to the fore with the change in geography.Although the article has limitations in terms of containing observations specific to
one country, it supports the claims in terms of including the local research results of
the countries and is considered to contribute to the literature for the Balkans where
limited research is available.