The objective of this study was to determine the phytoconstituents present in successive extracts and the antidepressant activity of methanolic extract of the spadix of Colocasia affinis. The preliminary phytochemical investigation indicated the presence of fats and fixed oils, steroids and triterpenoids in petroleum ether extract, steroids and triterpenoids in chloroform extract, flavonoids and tannins in methanol extract and carbohydrates in the aqueous extract. An in vivo test for antidepressant activity was performed on the methanolic extract of the plant at two different doses using force swim test and tail suspension test on an experimental animal model (rat). Imipramine was used as a standard drug for the study. The methanolic extract at 200 and 400 mg/kg, produced significant reduction (p<0.001) in the immobility period when compared with that of control group animals in both the tests. Thus, the result indicates that the methanolic extract exhibited significantly good antidepressant activity. Further investigation may be needed to understand the actual mechanism of action.
Ginger soft rot disease caused by fungal pathogens have become one of the most serious problems causing reduced production around the world. It has also caused a major problem among farmers of Mizoram state in India resulting in a huge decline in rhizome yield. However, the exact causative agents of this disease have not been identified in the state. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to isolate and characterized the causative agents of ginger soft rot disease from the diseased plants collected from five different villages of Aizawl district, Mizoram. Isolated fungi were cultured and morphological and molecular identification were done using internal transcribed spacer of rDNA. Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani and Plectosphaerella cucumerina were identified in ginger samples from five villages. Fusarium spp. were the most common and seem to be the major causative agents. It is suggested that further investigation is required to explore the diversity of ginger soft rot pathogenic fungi in the whole state which could be helpful in introducing effective and eco-friendly disease management programme.
Cogon grass, Imperata cylindrica (L.) Räuschel, was studied for its flavonoid and phenol contents. A series of extracts of the underground (rhizome-root) parts was prepared by hot extraction using solvents of different polarities such as chloroform, methanol, and petroleum ether. The total flavonoid content of the plant extracts was determined based on the reaction with aluminum chloride, sodium nitrite, and sodium hydroxide. Quercetin was used as a standard reference. Chloroform extract showed highest content of flavonoids with 30.88 mg QE/g dry wt., followed by petroleum ether extract which was 22.05 mg mg QE/g dry wt., and methanol extract has the least value with 7.35 mg QE/g dry wt. The total phenolic content of the plant was estimated based on the reaction of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent using gallic acid as the standard reference. Again, the chloroform extract had the highest content with 7.54 mg GAE/g dry wt., while methanol extract contained 5.03 mg GAE/g dry wt., and petroleum ether extract contained 3.63 mg mg GAE/g dry wt. Our study shows that I. cylindrica is a good source of antioxidants.
The present study was carried out on the diversity of fish under the genus Garra from the Kaladan River and its tributaries of Mizoram, northeast India. The study reported the occurrence of seven species viz. Garra flavatra, G. cf. koladynensis, G. cf. matensis, G. nigricolis, G. rakhinica, G. manipurensis and G. khawbungi. Key to Garra species from Kaladan River drainage of Mizoram and their brief descriptions are given.
Nanopillars-TiO2 thin films was obtained on a borosilicate glass substrate with (S1) and without (S2) polyethylene glycol as template. The photocatalytic behaviour of S1 and S2 thin films was assessed inthe degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye from aqueous solution under batch reactor operations. The thin films were characterized by the SEM, XRD, FTIR and AFM analytical methods. BET specific surface area and pore sizes were also obtained. The XRD data confirmed that the TiO2 particles are in its anatase mineral phase. The SEM and AFM images indicated the catalyst is composed with nanosized pillars of TiO2, evenly distributed on the surface of the substrate. The BET specific surface area and pore sizes of S1 and S2 catalyst were found to be 5.217 and 1.420 m2/g and 7.77 and 4.16 nm respectively. The photocatalytic degradation of MB was well studied at wide range of physico-chemical parameters. The effect of solution pH (pH 4.0 to 10.0) and MB initial concentration (1.0 to 10.0 mg/L) was extensively studied and the effect of several interfering ions, i.e., cadmium nitrate, copper sulfate, zinc chloride, sodium chloride, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, glycine, oxalic acid and EDTA in the photocatalytic degradation of MB was demonstrated. The maximum percent removal of MB was observed at pH 8.0 beyond which it started decreasing and a low initial concentration of the pollutant highly favoured the photocatalytic degradation using thin films and the presence of several interfering ions diminished the photocatalytic activity of thin films to some extent. The overall photocatalytic activity was in the order: S2 > S1 > UV. The photocatalytic degradation of MB was followed the pseudo-first-order rate kinetics. The mineralization of MB was studied with total organic carbon measurement using the TOC (total organic carbon) analysis.
Macaranga denticulata (Blume) Müll.Arg. (family Euphorbiaceae) is an evergreen tree and a common pioneer species in moist open and secondary forest. It is commonly known as Kharpa in Mizoram. Traditionally, the species of Macaranga are used in the treatment of swelling, cuts, sores, boils and bruises. Preliminary phytochemical screening and evaluation of in vitro antioxidant activity were carried out on the methanolic extract obtained from the bark of M. denticulata. The presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, steroids and triterpenoids was indicated by the tests conducted. The in vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, reducing power and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity. Ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were used as reference standards. The methanolic extract of the plant shows a strong antioxidant activity comparable to that of the reference standards.
Cogon grass Imperata cylindrica is a perennial grass belonging to the family Poaceae, and the rhizome-root portion of which is used for the treatment of bacterial infections, ringworms and other skin infections. Among the Mizo people they are directly consumed or juiced for the treatment of intestinal infection. Its chemical and biological properties are poorly documented. In this study, a methanol extract of the rhizome-root was prepared by hot extraction in a Soxhlet apparatus. Standard chemical tests were conducted. The presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates including reducing sugars, phytosterols, tannins, saponins and proteins were confirmed as the major bio-compounds. Free radical-scavenging activities were also determined. The plant extract indicated concentration-dependent scavenging activity on DPPH with an inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 2.14 µg/ml. H2O2 was similarly scavenged, in which the IC50 was 2.221 µg/ml. Our results suggest that I. cylindrica has important medicinal values.
Scrub typhus is one the most important re-emerging infectious disease, and perhaps, the most important bacterial disease. Caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, it is transmitted through the bite of mites belonging to the genus Leptotrombidium, in which the bacteria are obligate parasites. Though the mites are natural ectoparasites of rodents and other animals, in which there is no disease, opportunistic infection to humans gives rise to a serious disease. Known to Japanese physicians as tsutsugamushi (insect disease), human infection is caused by the larvae of trombiculid mites, the fact established by Mataro Nagayo and co-workers established in 1917. The pathogen was discovered by Naosuke Hayashi in 1920. In Mizoram, the disease has been rampant since 2011. This paper summarises available data on the prevalence of the infection in different districts base on collective information from various sources. Records between 2012 and 2018 show that over a thousand people had been infected and 35 people had died of the disease.
Indoor radon and thoron concentrations have been measured using solid state nuclear track detector (LR-115 type-ІІ) based twin cup dosimeter with single and double entry deployed side by side. The measurements have been carried out in 50 dwellings of 8 different villages/towns situated in Saiha and Lawngtlai districts, Mizoram. Dwellings were selected primarily from the gamma level measured using Micro-R survey meter and the construction type of the building. The average concentrations of radon and thoron were found to be 75.76 Bq/m3 and 96.50 Bq/m3 for single entry dosimeter and 63.47 Bq/m3 and 19.79 Bq/m3 for double entry dosimeter. The single entry dosimeter was found to give more reliable observations than that of double entry in terms of trends of seasonal data and also on the theory behind the manufacturing qualities.
The study was performed to investigate the quantity of cholesterol level in the commonly consumed fats and oils in Mizoram, and further assessed, whether or not it is of risk to coronary heart diseases (CHD). Samples collected include mustard oil (Vimal), butter (Amul), dalda (Vanaspati), ghee (Amul and Vanaspati), refined oil (Best Choice, Dhara, Nutrela, and Gokul), coconut oil (Parachute), olive oil and palm oil. Performing the experiment gives a result where palm oil was found to contain highest level i.e. 804.5 mg/L and coconut oil (Parachute) has the lowest i.e. 179 mg/L. Daily requirements of cholesterol is estimated to be approximately 300 mg per day and thus showing the tested samples to be safe for human consumptions but however limit use of edible oils is recommended for safety measures for high risk individual.
For sustainability in agricultural productions, familiarity of soil quality and manual improvement to create the best possible growing environment for plants are extremely important. In this study the quality of soil of a paddy field in North Vanlaiphai was investigated with respect to the change in seasons throughout the year. A total of five (5) soil samples were selected from various places of the paddy field, and soil fertility indicators such as pH, total soil nitrogen (N), available phosphorus (Pav), exchangeable potassium (Kex), soil organic carbon (SOC), soil organic matter (SOM) and soil enzymes viz. dehydrogenase, phosphatase and urease were analyzed using standard protocols. All the parameters except available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium were found to be highest during rainy season whereas lowest in summer.
In this study, two-occasion successive sampling for ratio-to-regression estimator was used to determine the current estimate of the population mean using only the matched part and one auxiliary variable, which is available on both the occasions. The data used were based on the total number of female workers in villages in Mizoram with the total number of literate female in villages in Mizoram as an auxiliary variables. The data were gotten from Census of India 2001 and 2011. The optimum mean square error of the combined ratio-to-regression and ratio estimator has been compared with (i) the optimum mean square error of the chain-type ratio estimator (ii) mean per unit estimator and (iii) combined estimator when no auxiliary information is used at any occasion. This result showed that the combined ratio-to-regression and ratio estimator is more efficient than the other three existing estimators.
In this paper we report the first confirmed sighting of chestnut-flanked white-eye Zosterops erythropleurus (Swinhoe, 1863) from Mizoram and first photographic report from India. chestnut-flanked white-eye belongs to the family Zosteropidae and is a resident of Cambodia, China, Hongkong, Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Laos, Myanmar, Russia, Thailand and Vietnam. In the Indian Sub-continent this is the only sighting report for this species and details of sightings and habitat are discussed.
Oligochaeta is a class of segmented worms under the phylum Annelida that are characterised by the presence of tiny setae in each body segment. Earthworms are the main members, consisting of approximately 6200 species. Their ecological importance is well known as they are the major soil macro-fauna; Aristotle had named them as “the intestines of soil”. Classification of earthworms is a controversial issue since the introduction of modern taxonomical system on earthworm by Michaelsen in 1921. This is mainly because conventional identification using morphological and anatomical characters are complicated and confusing. The key diagnostic features such as the position and structure of the reproductive organs, clitellum and the associated tubercular pubertatis are not always reliable, particularly in different developmental stages, especially when the available specimens are the juveniles. DNA barcoding has offered a potential solution, even at the levels of identifying the juveniles or cocoons. Several genes including mitochondrial cytochrome-c oxidase I, 16S, 18S and 28S ribosomal RNAs, and protein-coding histone H3 genes have been introduced in the taxonomy and phylogeny of earthworm. It is anticipated that DNA barcoding will help conflicting taxonomy and further exploration of species diversity in India.
In this paper, we study some curvature problems of Ricci solitons in α-Kenmotsu manifold. It is shown that a symmetric parallel second order-covariant tensor in a α-Kenmotsu manifold is a constant multiple of the metric tensor. Using this result, it is shown that if (Lvg + 2S) is parallel where V is a given vector field, then the structure (g, V, λ) yield a Ricci soliton. Further, by virtue of this result, Ricci solitons for n-dimentional α-Kenmotsu manifolds are obtained. In the last section, we discuss Ricci soliton for 3-dimentional α-Kenmotsu manifolds.
A study was conducted to enumerate the ethno-medicinal plants in Rongram block of West Garo Hills District, Meghalaya. The study was based on the primary survey and data collected through questionnaires, focus-group discussions and semi-structured interviews prepared for the purpose by approaching the local traditional healers (oja) as well as villagers. The study revealed that a total of 18 medicinal plants belonging to 18 genera and 16 families were documented. Information on local names, scientific names, family, plant parts used and traditional usage of these plants were also reported. Among the documented medicinal plant species, trees were most frequently used followed by herbs, shrubs and climbers. The study also revealed that leaves were most commonly used in the treatment followed by the bark.
Biomass assessment of the macrophytic plant species were carried out at Poiroupat lake located in Imphal East district of Manipur. The present study reveals the presence of 30 aquatic macrophytes. The recorded aquatic macrophytes of the lake have been classified into four categories, viz. submerged (10%), rooted with floating leaves (16.7%), free floating (20%) and emergent (53.3%). In all the study sites, Ceratophyllum demersum recorded the maximum total biomass with values ranging from 24.52 (Site I) to 241.45 gm–2 (Site III). This was followed by Alternanthera philoxeroides with values ranging from 25.74 (Site II) to 139.77 gm–2 (Site II). This was successively followed by Utricularia flexuosa (14.12 to 110.45 gm–2), Ludwigia adscendens (14.09 to 89.32 gm–2), Nymphaea stellata (29.66 to 84.32 gm–2), Nelumbo nucifera (15.03 to 67.41 gm–2), Hydrilla verticillata (16.09 to 67.00 gm–2), Hygroryza aristata (30.95 to 62.52 gm–2), Ipomoea aquatica (4.54 to 58.31 gm–2), Nymphoides indicum (4.41 to 47.95 gm–2). Eichhornia crassipes recorded peak value of 26.54 gm–2. During the entire study period, the total biomass of all species (combined) ranged from 130.07 to 512.28 gm–2. The maximum biomass values were recorded during rainy season.
Ca1-x-ySO4:Eux,Dyy (0 < x < 0.04, 0 < y < 0.04) phosphors were prepared and characterized by XRD. The samples were well crystalline and exhibit orthorhombic structure. The phosphor Ca0.99SO4:Eu0.005Dy0.005 was found having highest TL intensity. The phosphor was annealed at different temperatures. All the TL glow curves have one prominent peak at 420K. TL intensity for this peak was found decreasing when the phosphor was annealed at a particular temperature for different durations.
Jawaharlal Nehru was most instrumental in instilling scientific temper at the birth of modern India. In contrast, as Bharatiya Janata Party came into power in 2014, their top-down governance is explicitly trying to promote Vedic science. The Prime Minister boasted off of genetics in Mahabharata, and plastic surgery in the Vedas. The origin of Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle form the Vedas is the pride of the Home Minister. The Minister of Science and Technology contended that the Vedas contain better theory than E = mc2. There is increased veneration of cattle. A large-scale promotion of bovine urine and dung as medicine, called cowpathy or, as they embrace it, panchagavya is on the rise. To that effect, gold was discovered in the urine of Gir cows, but really to no effect. Their cows breathe in and out oxygen, and peafowl are confirmed celibates. The Minister of State for Human Resources Development ridiculed evolutionary biology proclaiming that Darwin’s theory is scientifically flawed. We, the people of India, deserve better wisdom. As Nehru would have put it, “a baseless dogma or a hopeless aspiration” of this sort will never elate India, or any nation for that matter, to scientific progression, not to say economic and social developments.