A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF EXISTING ANCIENT INDIAN GURUKUL MODELS FOR BUILDING A FUTURISTIC EDUCATIONAL PERSPECTIVE
Authors: Medipally Raju
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The present paper intends to develop insights into the system of education practiced in India as a Guru- Shishya Parampara through Gurukuls in contemporary times. Some of such models are presented in this paper to suggest the curriculum in the present education system in the light of NEP. There are Gurukulas even in the current times following the ancient system and are preserving Indian knowledge and Guru Shishya Parampara. They still follow oral tradition and practice various ideologies. In the Indian education system, there are two types of Vidyas; they are Para and Apara Vidya. Para Vidya is related to spiritual (Non-Material) like Vedas and Vedangas, Upanishads etc., which leads us to liberation. Apara Vidya is connected to (Material) Science and technology, astronomy, medicine, metallurgy, and sixty-four Kalas (Music, dance, skills, warfare arts etc.); the ultimate goal of the Apara Vidya is to reach the Moksha through Para Vidya. In Rig Vedic period, every individual had equal opportunities in the field of education irrespective of race, religion, gender, cast and region etc. But later Periods, the education system was influenced by religious, political, economic, social and other factors. The ideals, spiritual practices, duty helped for the welfare of the universe by the individuals or society is called Dharma. In India, Dharma is the ultimate destination for everyone. Indians are inculcating Dharma through spirituality, responsibility, morals, duties and knowledge. The treasure of knowledge in India is preserved in the sacred texts in the ancient Sanskrit language. The Sanskrit language is the key to understanding the enormous knowledge of India. Some of the (Agrahara) villages in India are like 1. Mattur (Karnataka), 2. Jhiri (Madhya Pradesh) and 3. Ganoda (Rajasthan), Parishads, Ashramas,Vidya Peetas,Mathas and Vedic /Sanskrit Universities still preserve the Deva Bhasha Sanskrit as their Mother Tongue and Educational language. There are different Gurukulas established with different ancient ideologies, Curriculum, rules and regulations by different Philosophies from ancient to the present. Still, the ultimate goal of all these organizations is to preserve and transfer ancient Indian knowledge to the next generations. The central core idea of the Gurukula is to train the students with their interesting skills and their education, and it is not preparing the students for seeking jobs. The kind quality of education in Gurukulas influences the overall development of students as human beings. Gurus and Shishyas discipline, responsibility, duties and dedication etc., are the utmost essential qualities in this system. This paper tries to explain the ancient Gurukul practices and the processes involved and understand various models existing with diverse Indian philosophical perspectives. This paper also brings out a critical analysis of some of the existing models of Gurukuls.