FANTASTIC ELEMENTS IN GEORGE MACDONALD’S PHANTASTES
Authors: Marina Abdullah Bukeir Al-Saqqaf
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This paper, as the title implies, deals with the fantastic elementsin of one of the
greatest Fantasy works of George MacDonald. Fantasy and the fantastic contradicts reality
in the sense thatit is opposite to the norms of our world.Thus, the paper investigates what
Mendlesohn and James refer to as“the presence of the impossible and the unexplainable”(3).
that are present in MacDonald’s Phantastesdue to its great impact on fantasy in the modern
sense of the genre. The Researcher uses analytical approach based on close observation and
investigation of the fantastic elements in the novel to reach to broad identity of the fantastic.
The paper is divided into three parts. The first partprovides an idea about Fantasy and
Fantastic elements. The second discusses and summarizes the novel, the third part is the most
important one because itpresents all the fantastic that appeared in the novel. The last part is
the conclusion. The paper concludes that MacDonald made a brilliant use of a complicated
fantasy. created fantastic world with layers of smaller worlds within, diverse unexpected
forms of fantastic creatures like evil spirits in natural forms, magical animals, goblins,
giants, and fairies. He presented multitudes of characters and finally heavy use of objects or
aspects but dressed them magical outfits. For instance, singing has the power to bring people
alive, to free people and find them,sea changes it quality to be theatre-like. they are time
transparent, and food is magical that not only satisfies hunger but magically broaden senses
and sharpens intellect. In short, it highlights George MacDonald creativity, sorts out
Phantastesrichness in Fantastic and highlights its importance in Fantasy genres.