The present article aims to analyze the recent categories of the History of the Education currently used for studying the global processes of education with special emphasis on the study of the configuration of secondary education. The article examines categories linked to the notion of institution and categories from the study of the school format. It concludes with the contributions of the categories analyzed to the study of a local process - the configuration of the secondary school in the Argentina - in the scene of the internationalization of ideas and educational practices by the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. To this end it develops the category of institutional model.
The studies about the Catholic missionary education in Mozambique have highlighted how their role was subordinated to the colonial interests and their weak educational outcomes. Nevertheless, neither the evolution of church-state relations during the long period of the Salazar dictatorship nor the heterogeneity of views and actions of the Catholic hierarchy have been taken into account. The study of the educational reports of the Diocese of Beira (1950-1973) supports not only the overall weakness of the results but also the administrative authority’s derelictions of duty. The government only assumed their responsibilities to the imminence of war, against the interest and the almost exclusive role of religious education agents in expanding and improving the indigenous school network. The commitment of a significant part of the clergy of the central region of Mozambique to an unfair social reality which was contrary to the Gospel, led to educational and pastoral options whose result was the political awareness of indigenous elites who had been educated by the church.
This study analyzes the position of Italian diplomacy before the possibility that Spain incorporated learning Italian to their curricula in secondary education. We analyze, first, the position of Italian language in this type of education before 1922, date of the March on Rome. Later, we study the cooperation between Mussolini and the dictatorship «primorriverista» and the benefits for Italian language by the adoption of the Plan Callejo in 1926. Subsequently, we explain the negative consequences for fascist purposes derived for the new educational measures adopted during the Second Republic. In the fourth section, we examine the return of Italian language to the curricula in the context of the Civil War and the early years of Franco until the conclusion of the Fascist period in Italy.
This article aims to point up the strategies applied by the University of Salamanca to establish itself as an institution able to provide a new route to projection and internationalization of the university studies during Franco’s regime. The arrival of foreign students took place through several channels (courses, special lessons, agreements, teacher exchange, etc.) whose presence managed to encourage the gloomy scenery of the Spanish University. Latin America played a fundamental role in this process, becoming the key asset to the increase in foreign students. On the contrary, it took a lot of time to set up and build relationships with Europe and North America, hitherto not lively. A same phenomenon did not occur for Africa. Overall, since the sixties, the University of Salamanca has reached an important projection level and has been able to attract large numbers of foreign students. These data match those recorded in very few national universities. All this makes it an indispensable reference when it comes to discovering the first steps taken in order to achieve the opening of the Spanish University and a small extension of its field of view.
This article analyzes the process of nationalization of secondary education in Argentina in the second half of the nineteenth century considering the case of the province of Buenos Aires. First, it describes the organization of the preparatory education which depended on the University of the State of Buenos Aires, before the organization of the Nation. Then, it focuses on the tensions around degrees validation during the creation of the national schools, modifications in the curriculum at the University Department of Preparatory Studies and how the private sector was regulated. Finally, it analyzes the creation of the Provincial Secondary School of La Plata and its nationalization. It concludes that the Federal State by the 1880s, and through the national secondary schools, managed to become the only secondary public offer and to regulate the private sector. Thus, secondary education was established as a national issue.
The aim of this article is to present the main research trends in the history of childhood, education and school institutions, published in Russia from the middle of the 1980s to the present. Recent works on these topics adopt new theories and methodologies, which entail new delimitations of disciplinary borders and new ways of defining the objects of research. First of all, the history of pedagogical thought and educational institutions is marked by the abandonment of Marxist theory and by the elaboration of a new conception called «pedagogical anthropology», enabling a thorough examination of the complexity of personality and educational practices. Secondly, scholars have recently revived Russian and Soviet School history, by investigating its different role under the Tsarist autocracy and the Soviet regime. According to new research, the Soviet reforms were conceived in order to teach citizens new values – not only to build social classes and workers for the development of the planned economy, as pointed out by Socialist historiography. Thirdly, the history of childhood has been re-written on the basis of the history of everyday life and of interdisciplinary approaches. This has made it possible to examine not only the «discovery» of childhood in Russia, but also to understand the ambiguous use of representations of childhood in Soviet propaganda under Stalin, which concealed the tragedy of homeless children and their presence in the Gulags. Finally, the history of social pedagogy contributes to the revision of the pedagogical theory of the most famous Soviet pedagogue – A.S. Makarenko (1888-1939) – in the social rehabilitation of juvenile offenders. The history of youth movements also represents a new trend aiming at analysing the continuity between the Scouts and the Communist Pioneers as well as its very important role in the political socialization and active participation in the defence of the Fatherland during WWII.
The Seventies witnessed a renewed scientific interest in the literary genre of autobiography, even by researchers in disciplinary areas not strictly philological or literary. But, if often autobiographical narrative is used as a legitimation of a personal choice – especially in ethical and political realm – in the most recent works, the resurgence of “women’s pages” and the concomitant successful researches by scholars in different fields (history, education, and literature) have made their way to a reformulation of the value of the autobiography itself, not only as a meta-historical issue led to the formation of a national identity, but increasingly as a powerful key to introspection. Once women have become masters in this literary genre, autobiographies have become instruments to capture the inner self and categories have largely diverted to a more intimate life, in a space apart to better hear themselves. Interest in the autobiographies was born under this gender difference: descending into the abyss of the female autobiographical writings can illuminate parts of real life, guess censorship, look closely at the passing of everyday experience. The writer’s life is moving in this complex space, a place where desires for personal fulfillment usually fight against family responsibilities and social engagements, with traditional educational models and new projects for the future. Acting in this context is not simple, nor easy, because sometimes the strategies that women still represent are defined as coercive, more as resignations than options. The autobiographies analyzed in the essays that follow, give us examples of rebellion and revolt – more or less openly – put into action not to resign to inequality, especially when not only social rules refer to ways and times exclusively male, but when this injustice is seen in its full tragic sense. Then, rebellion in deeds and words is unavoidable and necessary.
The life of the Florentine writer Ida Baccini (1850-1911) offers many insights in the history of gender, education and women’s autobiography. She was one of the first Italian who managed to live with her work as a writer, not discouraging even in two exceptional circumstances in the socio-cultural context of the second half of XIX century Italy: the annulment of her marriage to the sculptor Vincenzo Cerri and the birth of an illegitimate child. Ida had the courage to walk alone in the difficult world of publishing and journalism in Italy, a world traditionally male-dominated, and to tell her adventures in an autobiography that testifies her extraordinarystrength of character. Published in 1904, the book My life: autobiographical memories is one of the first Italian women’s autobiographies written according to standards that still now define this genre. This is an essential book if we want to investigate the beginning of the use of female writing as a claim both of identity, and moral and intellectual authority.
Laura Orvieto (Milan 1876 - Florence 1953), children’s writer, always loved telling stories. She asked everyone to tell her stories and, if she couldn’t find anyone available, she told stories to younger children. These stories were inspired by the many books she read and by the fairy tales told by old women. As an adult, once a writer, her most successful work was inspired by classical mythology and the small adventures of her own children. But in the second half of the 1930s many things changed for a family from the Florentine Jewish middle classes, with the increasing pressure of racial marginalization. In around 1936 Laura decided to abandon her usual themes, and instead to turn to her origins and tell her own story, and that of her husband Angiolo and their respective families. The Storia di Angiolo e Laura is written in a simple and direct style, close to Orvieto’s other work. But in the final pages she allows space for statements that illustrate her painful crisis of conscience. Today we can ask to what extent these pages reflect a real biographical journey: other sources complete, confirm or deny the events and states of mind expressed in the book. A parallel reading of a few chapters and other documents reveals less well-known aspects of the thinking and frame of mind of Laura and her family and illustrates her working methods.
In this work we intend to study, through the analysis of the autobiographical works of the anarchist thinker Federica Montseny (1905-1994), the educational context in which the writer was born and her attempt to transform the society through her own example and writings. The anti-authoritarian and freethinker background, the extended family of overtones inspired by Fourier’s ideal, the rational and secular teachings of her mother Teresa Mañé, the full immersion into the world of politics and workers struggles of the early twentieth century shapes the awareness of a child who will devote her life spreading the anarchist model. Deeply aware of the ethical and social potential of art, she puts into practice her ability to become a writer, a speaker and an educator of the people. Fiction and reality blend aiming to create a heroine.
The life and works of Anna Franchi remained undiscovered for a long time despite the writer desired to become part of history and to leave a trace both in the socialist and in the emancipationist movements. In the literary production of Anna Franchi, autobiographical elements and fictions become an inseparable issue. Particularly in her biography La mia vita (My life) published for the first time in 1940 the writer looked through her life searching for a deeper meaning. Franchi does not limit to describe events and characters but, through narration, she gives an interpretation of her own experience giving in the same time a meaning to it: from her childhood when she absorbs and adopts the ideals of the Risorgimento and the love for art and literature to the long and extremely painful period of her marriage; from journalistic and artistic activities to the political commitment with the socialist party and the movement for women’s rights. Through her works, Franchi provides a political example of free woman
Maria Occhipinti (1921-1996) has been recorded in Sicilian history as emblem of Sicilian women’s protest in the mid-forties, events she narrates in Una donna di Ragusa. In her posthumous work Una donna libera Maria sums up her life from those years just to the time before her death: it is the autobiography of a self-taught woman that was, despite everything and everyone, a free woman slave to nothing – nor political ideas, nor a comfortable and bourgeois life – or anyone – family or love –, always coherent with her ideals and ready to fight for the fundamental human rights. Una donna libera tells us the story of a pilgrim in the world, a rebel, a rather difficult woman, uncomfortable for institutions and people, including intellectuals. Maria Occhipinti will become only in the XXI century a model to be followed by other women.