The Problems of Modern Interpretations of Classical Texts (“Captain’s Daughter” by A. Pushkin at School and University)
Authors: Olga V. Bogdanova
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In the article on the example of the text of the novel “Captain’s Daughter” by A. Pushkin the author demonstrates how axiological perspectives of classical literary works change in modern conditions, how in a modern school can be more interesting and more deeply interpreted axiomatic material repeatedly studied and subjected to understanding in different years. In particular, the article considers the images of the central characters of Pushkin’s novel – Pyotr Grinev and Alexei Shvabrin. The article shows how two characters – Grinev and Shvabrin – stood out in Pushkin’s manuscripts from the original single and integral image of the main character of the novel. However, in contrast to the existing tradition, which considers these heroes of “Captain’s Daughter” as antagonist heroes, in this work these images are qualified as twin heroes with a common ideological root. The study shows that the image of Grinev undoubtedly bears the features of an autobiographical hero, for example, in those circumstances when the first chapter of the novel tells the story of the childhood of the central character. However, before the researchers did not pay attention to the fact that the image of Shvabrin is also accompanied by portrait details and features that have a connection with the personality of the real Pushkin, the creator of the novel. For example, at the first appearance of the hero Shvabrin in front of Grinev (and the reader) draw attention to the characteristic features of Pushkin’s portrait (curly dark hair, dark skin, short stature, fluent knowledge of French, the vitality of nature). As the novel progresses, it becomes clear that the writer deliberately gives the characters similar features, actually equalizes and likens the characters. Pushkin consciously detects the contradictory nature of each of the characters, placing them in a similar situation, pushing in a conflict – “love triangle”. Thus, Pushkin actually demonstrates the techniques of auto-psychoanalysis. Through the images of paired characters, the author disavows the duality of each person’s nature, discovers dual impulses within the personality of one person, each of us (including himself). Form of narrative in novel is memoirs, diaries, memories. This narrative form prompted the author to ensure that a single and integral image of a complex character broke up in the end into two simplified images that appeared more understandable to the consciousness and perception of the character-narrator Petrusha Grinev. The last statement does not mean that Pushkin was going to whitewash the person or to justify behavior of the hero Alexey Shvabrin. In the end, his image still comes in the text of the memoir to a negative evaluation. However, Pushkin’s ability to maintain the capacity of the character of the individual character, to abandon the primitive classic division into positive and negative characters, the ability to see in different characters antinomic phenomenon properties enriches the perception of the novel (including the image of Shvabrin).