Objective: Isolated pancreatic islets are valuable resources for a wide range of research, including cell replacement
studies and cell-based platforms for diabetes drug discovery and disease modeling. Islet isolation is a complex and
stepwise procedure aiming to obtain pure, viable, and functional islets for in vitro and in vivo studies. It should be noted
that differences in rodent strains, gender, weight, and density gradients may affect the isolated islet’s properties. We
evaluated the variables affecting the rat islet isolation procedure to reach the maximum islet yield and functionality,
which would be critical for further studies on islet regenerative biology.
Materials and Methods: The present experimental study compared the yield and purity of isolated islets from nondiabetic
rats of two different strains. Next, islet particle number (IPN) and islet equivalent (IEQ) were compared between
males and females, and the weight range that yields the highest number of islets was investigated. Moreover, the
influence of three different density gradients, namely Histopaque, Pancoll, and Lymphodex, on final isolated islets purity
and yield were assessed. Finally, the viability and functionality of isolated islets were measured.
Results: The IEQ, IPN, and purity of isolated islets in 15 Lister hooded rats (LHRs) were significantly (P≤0.05) higher than
those of the other strains. Male LHRs resulted in significantly higher IEQ compared to females (P≤0.05). Moreover, IPN and
IEQ did not significantly vary among different weight groups. Also, the utilization of Histopaque and Pancoll leads to higher
yield and purity. In vivo assessments of the isolated islets presented significantly reduced blood glucose percentage in the
transplanted group on days 2-5 following transplantation.
Conclusion: Based on these results, an optimal protocol for isolating high-quality rat islets with a constant yield, purity,
and function has been established as an essential platform for developing diabetes research.
Objective: Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer, which is currently the leading cause of cancer death.
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) play important roles in cancer, however, circRNAs serving as vital index in BC for guiding
treatment have not yet been identified. The aim of our study is to explore a novel kind of potential biomarker for BC.
Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, the samples used for assays were two groups of breast tumor
tissue obtained from four BC patients, including four pairs of tumor tissues and adjacent nontumor samples. The
circRNA expression profiles were detected via microarray and validated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain
Results: The differentially expressed circRNAs in tested samples were screened and analyzed by using human circRNA
microarray. After analysis, considering a fold gene expression change of ≥2.0 and P<0.05, results suggested that 256
circRNAs were significantly up-regulated and 277 circRNAs were significantly down-regulated. Besides, the results of
the real-time quantitative PCR assay showed that the expression of hsa_circ_0001583 was significantly up-regulated
in BC groups (P<0.05) by real-time quantitative PCR. Therefore, we thought hsa_circ_0001583 might serve as a novel
kind of biomarker for BC.
Conclusion: Hsa_circ_0001583 showed significant up-regulation in BC patients with paired adjacent tissues. Many
cancer immune pathways were related to has_circ_0001583, including autoimmune thyroid disease, chemokine and
T-cell receptor signaling pathways.
Objective: Acellular matrices of different allogeneic or xenogeneic origins are widely used as structural scaffolds in
regenerative medicine. The main goal of this research was to optimize a method for decellularization of foreskin for skin
regeneration in small wounds.
Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, the dermal layers of foreskin were divided into two sections and
subjected to two different decellularization methods: the sodium dodecyl sulfate method (SDS-M), and our optimized
foreskin decellularization method (OFD-M). A combination of non-ionic detergents and SDS were used to decellularize
the foreskin in OFD-M. The histological, morphological, and biomechanical properties of both methods were compared.
In addition, human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hucMSCs) were isolated, and the biocompatibility and
recellularization of both scaffolds by hucMSC were subsequently determined.
Results: We observed that OFD-M is an appropriate approach for successful removal of cellular components from the foreskin
tissue, without physical disturbance to the acellular matrix. In comparison to SDS-M, this new bioscaffold possesses a fine
network containing a high amount of collagen fibers and glycosaminoglycans (GAG) (P≤0.03), is biocompatible and harmless
for hucMSC (viability 91.7%), and exhibits a relatively high tensile strength.
Conclusion: We found that the extracellular matrix (ECM) structural integrity, the main ECM components, and the
mechanical properties of the foreskin are well maintained after applying the OFD-M decellularization technique,
indicating that the resulting scaffold would be a suitable platform for culturing MSC for skin grafting in small wounds.
Objective: Recently, development of multifunctional contrast agent for effective targeted molecular computed
tomography (CT) imaging of cancer cells stays a major problem. In this study, we explain the ability of Triptorelin
peptide-targeted multifunctional bismuth nanoparticles (Bi2S3@ BSA-Triptorelin NPs) for molecular CT imaging.
Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, the formed nanocomplex of Bi2S3@ BSA-Triptorelin NPs
was characterized using different methods. The MTT cytotoxicity test was performed to determine the appropriate
concentration of nanoparticles in the MCF-7 cells. The X-ray attenuation intensity and Contrast to Noise Ratio (CNR) of
targeted and non-targeted nanoparticles were measured at the concentrations of 25, 50, and 75 μg/ml and X-ray tube
voltages of 90, 120 and 140 kVp.
Results: We showed that the formed Bi2S3@ BSA-Triptorelin NPs with a Bi core size of approximately ~8.6 nm are nontoxic
in a given concentration (0-200 μg/ml). At 90, 120, and 140 tube potentials (kVp), the X-ray attenuation of targeted cells were
1.35, 1.36, and 1.33-times, respectively, more than non-targeted MCF-7cells at the concentration of 75 μg/ml. The CNR
values at 90, 120, and 140 kVp tube potentials were 171.5, 153.8 and 146.3 c/ϭ, respectively.
Conclusion: These ﬁndings propose that the diagnostic nanocomplex of Bi2S3@ BSA-Triptorelin NPs can be applied
as a good contrast medium for molecular CT techniques.
Objective: Ionizing radiation (IR) is one of the major therapeutic approaches in the non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC);
however, it can paradoxically result in cancer progression likely through promoting epithelial-mesenchymal transition
(EMT) and the cancer stem cell phenotype. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether IR promote EMT/CSC and to
investigate the clinical relevance of EMT/CSC hallmark genes.
Materials and Methods: In this experimental and bioinformatic study, A549 cell line was irradiated with a high dosage
(6 Gy) or a fractionated regimen (2 Gy/day for 15 fractions). The EMT-related features, including cellular morphology,
migratory and invasive capacities were evaluated using scratch assay and transwell migration/invasion assays. The
mRNA levels of EMT-related genes (CDH1, CDH2, SNAI1 and TWIST1), stemness-related markers (CD44, PROM1,
and ALDH1A1) and the CDH2/CDH1 ratio were evaluated via real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The clinical
significance of these genes was assessed in the lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) samples using online databases.
Results: Irradiation resulted in a dramatic elongation of cell shape and enhanced invasion and migration capabilities. These
EMT-like alterations were accompanied with enhanced levels of SNAI1, CDH2, TWIST1, CD44, PROM1, and ALDH1A1 as
well as an enhanced CDH2/CDH1 ratio. TCGA analysis revealed that, TWIST1, CDH1, PROM1 and CDH2 were upregulated;
whereas, CD44, SNAI1 and ALDH1A1 were downregulated. Additionally, correlations between SNAI1-TWIST1, CDH2-
TWIST1, CDH2-SNAI1, and ALDH1A1-PROM1 was positive. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis identified lower expression of
CDH1, PROM1 and ALDH1A1 and increased expression of CDH2, SNAI1, and TWIST1 as well as CDH2/CDH1 ratio predict
overall survival. Additionally, downregulation of ALDH1A1 and upregulation of CDH2, SNAI1 and TWIST1 could predict a
shorter first progression.
Conclusion: Altogether, these findings demonstrated that IR promotes EMT phenotype and stem cell markers in A549
cell line and these genes could function as diagnostic or prognostic indicators in LUAD samples.
Objective: Drug resistance is the main hindrance to improve the prognosis of patients with gastric cancer. Amino
acid metabolic reprograming is essential to satisfy the different requirements of cancer cells during drug resistance,
of which serine deprivation could promote resistance to cisplatin in gastric cancer. As the key enzyme in the de novo
biosynthesis of serine, phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH) inhibition could also induce cisplatin resistance in
gastric cancer. This study aims to reveal the potential mechanisms of drug resistance induced by PHGDH inhibition via
exploring the global mRNA expression profiles.
Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, the viability and the apoptotic rate of gastric cancer cells
were evaluated by using Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) analysis and flow cytometric determination, respectively. The
identification of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was tested by mRNA-sequencing (mRNA-Seq) analysis. The
confirmation of sequencing results was verified using real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain
Results: The inhibition of PHGDH significantly increased the viability and decreased the apoptotic rate induced by cisplatin
in gastric cancer cells. mRNA-Seq analysis revealed that the combined treatment of NCT503 reduced the number of DEGs
induced by cisplatin. Gene Ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and Gene Set Enrichment
Analysis (GSEA) showed that unfolded protein response, ECM receptor interaction and cell cycle signaling pathways were
modulated by NCT503 treatment. Hub genes were identified by using protein-protein interaction network modeling, of which
E1A binding protein p300 (EP300) and heat shock protein family A (Hsp70) member 8 (HSPA8) act as the vital genes in
cisplatin resistance induced by the inhibition of PHGDH.
Conclusion: These findings suggested that the inhibition of PHGDH promoted cisplatin resistance in gastric cancer
through various intercellular mechanisms. And appropriate serine supplementation or the modulation of EP300 and
HSPA8 may be of great help in overcoming cisplatin resistance in gastric cancer.
Objective: Diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) is a challenging issue encountered during assisted reproductive
technology. Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) belong to the
transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily which are essential for folliculogenesis. We aimed to the evaluation
of the GDF9 and BMP15 expression in the granulosa cells (GCs) of DOR patients.
Materials and Methods: This case-control study included 14 women with DOR and 12 controls, who were between 28-
40 years of age undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation with a gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist
protocol. DOR patients were selected by the Bologna criteria. The GCs were extracted from the aspirated follicular
fluids and RNA isolated from this. The fold change of gene expressions was assessed by real-time polymerase chain
Results: GDF9 expression in patients was 0.23 times lower than the control group, which was significant (P<0.0001). BMP15
expression in patients was 0.32 times lower than the control group, which was significant (P<0.0001). The number of archived
oocytes, MII, and two pronuclei (PN) embryos was higher in the control group and these differences were statistically significant
Conclusion: Given that GDF9 and BMP15 are specifically involved during follicular recruitmen., we expect expression
of these two genes in DOR patients which is greatly reduced by reducing follicular reserve.
The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the genetic etiology of congenital cataract (CC) manifesting
an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance in four Iranian families. Affected individuals and their normal first-degree
relatives in each family were included in the present study. The genomic DNA of the blood samples was extracted
from all participants, and one affected member belonging to each family was subjected to Whole Exome Sequencing
(WES). Using bidirectional Sanger sequencing, the identified variants were validated by co-segregation analysis. Two
different mutations were detected in the FYCO1 gene encoding FYVE and coiled-coil domain-containing protein. A
previously reported missense mutation, c.265C>T (p.Arg89Cys), was found in one Iranian family for the first time,
and a combination of two variants in a single codon, c.[265C>T;267C>A] (p.Arg89X), was identified in the three other
families. On the other hand, accompanying the c.265C>T mutation, the presence of the c.267C>A polymorphism leads
to a premature stop codon. In-Silico Analysis of FYCO1 protein demonstrated that RUN domain will be interrupted
so that the large part of functional protein will be eliminated due to this novel variant. FYCO1 has been proved to be
involved in human lens development and transparency. Its mutations, therefore, result in CC. Herein, we reported the
first autosomal recessive CC patients with c.265C>T (p.Arg89Cys) or c.[265C>T;267C>A] variant in Iranian population
for the FYCO1 gene. FYCO1 mutations could be tracked for preventive objectives or even be targeted as therapeutic
candidates via treatment approaches in the future.
HASPIN is a nuclear serine-threonine kinase originally identified in the mouse testis. Its 193 bp DNA promoter element
(hereafter, 193PE) regulates bidirectional, synchronous gene expression in the germ cells of male mice. Recent studies
have shown that Haspin is also expressed in trace amounts in somatic cells; HASPIN also functions in oocytes.
Haspin expression is regulated by the tissue-specific methylation of Haspin genomic DNA regions, including somatic
cells. This study investigated relationship between 193PE and DNA methylation by examining methylation status of
transgenic mice carrying 193PE and a reporter gene. In somatic (liver) cells carrying the reporter gene, 193PE induced
methylation as well as trace expression of the reporter gene. In the testis, 193PE induced hypomethylation and intense
reporter gene expression. Expression of HASPIN in an egg was assessed using human chorionic gonadotrophin to
induce ovulation in female transgenic mice. The results showed that 193PE induced tissue-specific methylation, which
resulted in reporter gene expression in a mouse egg.