REGULATION OF THE ACTIVITIES OF CREDIT AND BANKING INSTITUTIONS OF THE DNIEPER UKRAINE BY PROVINCIAL CHANCELLERIES IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE NINETEENTH AND EARLY TWENTIETH CENTURIES
Authors: Radchenko N. М. PhD (History), associate Professor Department of the History of Ukraine, Uzhgorod National University (Ukraine).
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An important place in the complex of sources of the credit and banking system of the Russian Empire of the second half of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries is occupied by the management materials of provincial institutions, they constitute a significant complex of sources, which is consisting of both, normative regulatory documents and reporting and executive in accordance, with existing legislation. Which are their mass, were not published and stored in funds of central and regional archives of Ukraine. It should be noted that, the management materials have been repeatedly involved in the researches of: O. V. Kudimov, A. C. Minakov, H.
V. Rudyk. Analyzing, the documents between themselves and various events of that time allows us to study in detail the history of the formation of the first banks, institutions of mutual credit, pawnshops, savings and loan cash desks. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to study the information potential of management materials of the provincial chancelleries of the second half of the nineteenth to the beginning of the twentieth century, and their using in the study of the history of credit and banking institutions of the Dnieper Ukraine.
Whereas, the local authorities used to deal with it daily banking and lending issues with guidance the national government of the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Internal Affairs. Thus, all their activities are subordinated to the execution of their decisions, orders, instruction letters sent to each province, and then to the local establishments. The specifics of the activity of each province were reflected in it document circulation, as evidenced by the materials we have reviewed, the following Ukrainian provinces: Kyiv, Podolsk, Volyn, Kharkiv, Kherson and Tavriysky for the period of 1865-1914. The Governor’s Office was an enforcement body of all office work during Nineteenth century. Credit and banking institutions have been dealing with administrative, reporting and business departments. Structure of the chancellery, was aimed at providing the governor with the most reliable analytical information on all issues of province life, including the direction of economic monetary relations in his region. Chancelleries of the governors, under such a system of conducting cases, have accumulated a large array of reporting documents. The analysis of сhancelleries documents, testifies about presence of staggering in their preparation: drafts, texts with edits, the final version of the document. Both handwritten and typewritten versions are presented. To the last, usually, were brought editorial edits. It was concerned to the reports of governors. Quite often these documents were prepared by a team of authors, each of whom was responsible for its part of the report, and the governor met with completely shaped text, editing, or changing the emphasis on lighting affairs.
In the form of documents, the work of chancelleries was represented by private and public-law acts, decrees, orders, resolutions, reports, protocols, statutes, official correspondence and etc. official documents. It is advisable, to distinguish three documentation groups that relates directly to the researching problem: 1) administrative documentation; 2) correspondence; 3) reporting documentation.
Thus, detected and analyzed documents of provincial chancelleries give an idea of the very different aspects of the formation and development of credit- banking network of provinces, that is: firstly, reveal the reasons and the preconditions for the opening of new institutions or, conversely, explain the prohibition reasons of their activities; and secondly, highlighting attitudes and assessments. The activities of the institutions on the part of local authorities and the population, especially in matters concerning the shortcomings and the most common causes failures in the activities of banks and small lending institutions; Thirdly, allow to reconstruct a network of credit and banking institutions of Ukrainian provinces of the second half of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries; fourthly, trace the directions of activities of banks and small lending institutions, which were subject to increased attention and controlled by the state.