РИСК РАКА В ГРУППАХ НАСЕЛЕНИЯ, ПОСТРАДАВШЕГО ВСЛЕДСТВИЕ АВАРИИ НА ЧЕРНОБЫЛЬСКОЙ АЭС
Authors: Присяжнюк А.Е., Базыка Д.А., Романенко А.Е., Гудзенко Н.А., Фузик Н.Н., Троцюк Н.К., Федоренко З.П., Гулак Л.О., Слипенюк Е.М., Бабкина Н.Г., Хухрянская Е.Н., Горох Е.Л.
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The goal of this study was to define levels and dynamic trends of cancer incidence in total and several nosological forms in groups of Ukrainian population affected by the Chornobyl accident during a long period of observation. Those groups were Chornobyl accident recovery operation workers (CRW) of 1986-1987 years of participation, evacuees from Prypyat town and 30-km zone and residents of the most contaminated territories of Ukraine. This study showed that all cancer incidence exceeded the national level only in CRW group. Decrease of cancer incidence rate in the last years might be caused by shortened average life expectancy in Ukrainian population, especially in males. Statistically significant increase of leukemia incidence in CRW group was registered as well. Besides, in all three main affected groups there was revealed significant excess of thyroid cancer. Irradiation of thyroid due to radioactive iodine fallouts might be a main cause of this phenomenon. Increase of thyroid cancer incidence was registered not only in children, but also in adolescents and adults. Appearance of excess thyroid cancer cases as an effect of radiation exposure tends to increase during the time. Significant excess was also revealed for breast cancer in female CRW group. However further studies are necessary to clarify probable role of screening and improved registration in this phenomenon. Because latency period for different nosological forms of radiation-induced malignant tumors varies widely, profound attention in further studies should be drawn not only to thyroid, breast cancers and leukemia, but also to malignancies with longer latent period: lung, stomach, colon, ovary, urinary, kidney cancers and multiple myeloma.