Viral Infections- A Wide Scope of Study
Authors: Pawan S. Avhad.
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India is a country which is full of natural recourses on all direction of land such as snow fall on northern India, highest rainfall in northeast, hot desert on west and damp sea air on remaining costal area. Such types of climates are hardly available in any country in the world. Due to all this three seasons are observed in India, like summer, Rainy season, and winter. Because of change in climates there will be sudden growth of microorganism in atmosphere and chances to increase the illness in common people. The illness due to change in season is called as viral infections. Generally viral infections include sneezing, coughing, cold, fever, body ache etc. Depending upon the immunity of individual number of patients are cure within in few days either by oral analgesic, anticold, or basic antibiotics or by simply OTC medicines but few were treated with IV antibiotics. Majority of people complaint with sore throat, patches in throat, because of cold air entered in respiratory tract and produces running nose and irritation in throat. Number of viruses is pathogenic in human being producing a variety of syndromes. In a large majority of the cases, viral infections are not apparent or subclinical; only in some of them is a clinical disease produced. Clinical illness following a virus infection depends upon factors in the virus and the host. The very important factor in a virus is genomic alterations. The factors in the host mostly depend upon the nutritional status and the immune system. The life cycle of a virus starts with its entry into a host; it reaches the susceptible target cell, enters it, replicates and causes cell injury, and may be cell death. At any of these steps the life cycle of the virus can be aborted by various body mechanisms, mainly by the immune response. A single cough can release hundreds of droplets, a single sneeze thousands (up to 40 000) each droplet containing millions of viral particles.