CLASSIFICATION OF GOODS: ECONOMIC AND LEGAL ASPECT
Authors: V.V. Reznikova, I.M. Kravets
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The article is devoted to the classification of goods that are in economic circulation. The requirements for the classification of goods and their significance in modern market conditions of management are determined, which makes it possible to assess the rationality of the assortment of individual commodity groups, its conformity with consumer demand, and to plan the development of the range. By legal nature, the division of goods into several groups has been completed: "goods — property" (in this group particular attention is paid to excisable goods); "Information that is not subject to intellectual property rights"; "Goods — services"; "Goods — results of work". Different approaches to the term "property" in the national legislation are analyzed: Сivil Law, economic law, and also the approach developed by the practice of the European Court of Human Rights. With regard to information that is not the subject of intellectual property rights, it can be concluded that the information is materially embodied in business plans, marketing plans, investment projects, expert opinions, project proposals, reports, etc. The features of the services are distinguished in the article: the beneficial effect; inseparability from the source; unobservable, indescribable; immateriality; quality, differentiation of service quality; exclusivity; the impossibility of storing the service for the purpose of its further realization or use; inexhaustibility (regardless of the number of times it is provided, its own quantitative characteristics do not change). The article defines the criterion of the difference of work from the service. At the consumer’s cost and purpose, the goods are divided into: goods of production purpose; consumer goods; general purpose goods. Each of the selected groups is considered in detail. A detailed classification of goods and other possible criteria are proposed: on terms (terms) of use / degree of durability, in terms of tactics and strategy of promotion on the market, by type of consumption, by way of sale, by origin of goods, by channels of marketing — by significance for the national economy, on the degree of liquidity, etc.