HALVETİYYE GELENEĞİNDE ETVÂR-I SEBA/NEFSİN MERTEBELERİ
Authors: İsa ÇELİK and Birol YILDIRIM
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The nafs and its intentional reclamation in mystical thought is a matter of considerable importance.
Almost every religious sect’s student aims to discipline his nafs. Therefore, the sects are divided as
sensual and spiritual sects. Sensual sects discipline their students’ nafs with reclamation. Spiritual
sects try to bring the spirit to its original purity. In nafs mystical thinking, bad wishes and desires are one thing, the testimony and therefore nafs must be disciplined. When nafs is disciplined, it becomes
very delicate. He guides himself to a way of life that Allah and the Messenger want. He achieves both
worldly happiness and the hereafter. The Sufis, who are among the people who can see the eighteen
thousand worlds, first of all, start their work by creating a spiritual anatomy of men’s heart. In the
so-called Letaffler /chakra, they care to express and mark the distances they pass through in different
names. They draw maps according to their masters and neshves. Islam, faith, benevolence; shariah,
order, ingenuity, truth; kurb-i feraiz, kurb-i nevafil; fena fi’l-ihvan, fena fi’ş sheikh, fena fi’r-resul, fena
fi’llah; heart, soul, secret, secrets-secret, hafi, ahfa, letaif-i nefs; difference, cem ‘, cemü’l-cem’; ilme’lyakin,
ayne’l-yakin, hakka’l-yakin are some of the distances that needs to be passed.
In this study, taking the seven attributes mentioned as the nafs-i emmare, nafs-i levvame, nafs-i mülhime,
nafs-i mutmainne, nafs-i radiyye, nafs-i mardiyye and nafs-i kamile into consideration, we will examine
the nafs phenomenon which is called “etvar-i seb’a” in the Sufi literature. However, we will present the
general framework of the Sufi tradition by giving references from old and new sources. Our purpose is
to reveal the reason for the struggle with the nafs which is a crucial issue for man.