VOCATIONAL TECHNICAL HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS’ BELIEFS TOWARDS ICT FOR THE 21ST CENTURY EDUCATION: INDONESIAN CONTEXT
Authors: Amirul Mukminin, Akhmad Habibi, Muhaimin, Asrial, Eddy Haryanto, Panut Setiono, Sofyan
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To facilitate educational staff, especially teachers with adequate information and communication technology (ICT) tools and its integration, has been one of the main agendas in vocational high schools around the world. One of the key factors of the ICT integration success in education is teachers’ beliefs. To understand the phenomenon, this mix method study aimed at elaborating Vocational Technical High School (VTHS) teachers’ beliefs on the ICT and its integration in education and differences of the teachers’ beliefs between demographic information. Quantitatively, a survey was addressed to 765 respondents; the analysis was descriptive using mean, percentage, and standard deviation, as well as t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) for a difference between the demographic information namely genders, ages, and teaching experiences. Following the quantitative phase, interview was conducted with 10 teachers to get in-depth information through a thematic process. Findings suggest that the VTHS teacher’s beliefs on ICT and its integration in education mainly focused on 1) student engagement and effective learning, varied use of ICT regarding grades and content (behavioral beliefs); 2) needs of digital-age students and expectations of authorities, administrators, and colleagues (normative beliefs); 3) varied self-efficacy for using ICT in VTHSs, access to learning, access to ICT and human resource support (control beliefs).