Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells: Current trends and future perspectives
Authors: Diego Rossetti, Silvia Di Angelo Antonio, David Lukanović , Tina Kunic, Camilla Certelli, Carmine Vascone, Zaki Sleiman
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Among resources of mesenchymal stem cells, human umbilical cord appears to be a rising
source capable of differentiating into all germ layers, reaching and repairing lesion areas,
and promoting wound repair, and it has also the capacity to influence the immune response.
Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells are considered to be an optimal
resource compared with other mesenchymal stem cells sources because they require a non-
invasive recovery. All these characteristics allow their use in heterogeneous applications.
Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells can regenerate tissues, stimulate
angiogenesis, modulate inflammatory pathway signals and recruit endogenous stem cell.
Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells suppress mitogen-induced signals
and modulate the activation and proliferation of several immune cells, modifying lymphocyte
phenotypes activity. In culture, human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cellss
show the capacity to create several tissues such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Human umbilical
cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells can be isolated from the different compartments
of umbilical cord and processed by using different techniques. Clinical applications of
human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells include graft-versus-host disease,
autoimmune diseases such as Sjögren's syndrome and diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2,
gynecological disorders like endometriosis. Recent studies have shown possible application
on rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and neuronal degenerative diseases. This review is
focused on the resources, molecular profiles, propriety, in vitro characterizations, clinical
applications and possible future usage of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem